Fundamental of Project Management

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happysatomi
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Fundamental of Project Management
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2011-09-06 02:08:41
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Fundamental of Project Management Final
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  1. What is Project Stakeholders
    individual and organization who are involved in the project or whose interests may be affected by the project activities.

    • Example:
    • Project Manager
    • Portoflio Manager
    • Project team member
    • Sponsor
    • Customer
    • PMO
    • プロジェクトに関わる全ての人
  2. What is Project?
    A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result
  3. What is Program Management?
    • A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way
    • 同時並行に行われる相互に関係するいくつかのプロジェクト郡をグループとしてまとめて管理する
  4. What is Portfolio?
    • A collection of programs, projects, and additional work managed together to help achieve business goals
    • プロジェクト、プログラム、お呼び、関連事業を戦略的なビジネス目標を達成するために効果的にマネジメントすることを目的にグループとしてまとめられた集合体
  5. What is Project Management Office?
    • An organizational unit formed to centralize and coordinate the management of projects within its domain
    • 複数のプロジェクトを一元的にマネジメントし、管轄、調整を行うための組織の一部門あるいはそのグループ
  6. What is Project Life Cycle?
    • A collection of various phases that make up a project
    • プロジェクトの開始から終了までを何段階かにフェーズに分割したもの
    • プロジェクト・ライフサイクルの各段階を「フェーズ」と呼ぶ
    • 初期フェーズではステークホルダーの影響力は最大になり、変更残すとは最小になる
    • コストと要因は中間フェーズで最大になる
    • 良いプロジェクトライフサイクルは過去のプロジェクトの活動や教訓が組織ノ知識となり、次のプロジェクトに活かされること
  7. What is Product Life Cycle?
    A collection of stages that make up the life of a product
  8. What are the 9 knowledge areas?
    • Project Integration Management
    • Project Scope Management
    • Project Time Management
    • Project Cost Management
    • Project Quality Management
    • Project Human Resource Management
    • Project Communications Management
    • Project Risk Management
    • Project Procurement Management
  9. What are 5 Process Groups?
    • Initiating:Defines and authorizes the project
    • Planning:Describes how the project will be managed
    • Executing:Helps the project groups work together to complete the work
    • Monitoring and Controlling:Checks the progress of the project and corrects problems.
    • Closing:Formally closes each phase or the project and receives approval of the project work for the phase or project.
  10. What are the Triple Constraint?
    • 1. Cost
    • 2. Scope:プロジェクトの規模。プロジェクトに含まれる役割範囲。何をどこまで行うか。
    • 3. Time
  11. What are 6 point stars?
    • Cost
    • Scope
    • Time
    • Risk
    • Quality
    • Resources
  12. What is Project Manager?
    The indivisual responsible for the project.
  13. What is Project Management?
    The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to activities to meet project requirements.
  14. What is organizations?
    Organizations are ongoing and repetivtive(繰り返し)
  15. What are the key characteristic of PROJECT?
    • have well defined beginning and end
    • create unique outcome
    • have boundaries and constraints(制約)
    • produce a product, service, or result
  16. What are some of the key project management skills and characteristics?
    • leadership
    • technical
    • communication skills
    • adaptability and flexibility
    • accountability(責任)
    • analytical skills
    • decision maker
    • people skills
    • focused on customer needs and requirements
    • honesty and integrity(誠実)
    • team builder and effective application of project amangement disciplines
  17. Name some reasons project fails
    • Inability to track and control changes
    • Unclear project objectives
    • Unqualified project personnel
    • Insufficient initial planning
    • Unrealistic project plan
    • Insufficient contingency planning
    • Inability to track progress
    • Inability to detect problems early
    • Insufficient number of checkpoints
    • Staffing issues
    • Technical complexities / issues
    • Priority shifts
  18. Define a Successful Project
    • Completion within the allocated time
    • Completion within the amount budgeted
    • Completion at the proper performance or specification level
    • Agreement on scope changes
    • Customer / user acceptance
    • The ability to use customer as reference
  19. What do Senior Managements expect to Project Manager
    • Accountability(説明責任) and results
    • Timely and effective reporting
    • Analytical skills and problem solving
    • The presentation of alternatives and recommendations
    • Strong communication skills
    • Self discipline(規律・訓練) and interpersonal skills
  20. What does Project Manager expect to Senior Management?
    • Strategic direction
    • Defined decision channels
    • Conflict resolution assistance
    • Political protection
    • Timely and effective feedback
    • Personal / professional growth
  21. What does Project Team expect to Project Manager?
    • Project leadership
    • Facilitation of timely problem solving
    • Removal of obstacles
    • Conflict resolution
    • Team development and support
    • Protection of team from outside influences and pressures
  22. What does Project Manager expect to
    Project Team?
    • Teamwork
    • The timely communication of issues and concerns
    • Willingness to listen to ideas
    • Consensus building
  23. What is Project Charter?
    • Identifies the project vision and objectives
    • Defines the scope of the project
    • Lists the critical project deliverables
    • States the customers and project stakeholders
    • Lists the key roles and responsibilities
    • States the project organizational structure
    • Documents the overall implementation plan
    • Lists risks, issues and assumptions
    • 組織の資源をプロジェクト活動に使用する権限を公式に認可する契約書
  24. What are IN of "Developing Project Charter"?
    • Contract(契約)
    • Project Statement of Work (SOW)(プロジェクト作業範囲記述書)
    • Enterprise Environmental Factors(組織体の環境要因)
    • Organizational Process Assets(組織のプロセス資産)

    組織のプロセス資産とは:先輩が蓄積してきたプロジェクトの計画書や辞令書に書かれていることや、経験者や専門家の意見を参考にすること
  25. What is the Tool for "Developing Project Charter"?
    Expert Judgement
  26. What is the OUT of "Develop Project Charter"?
    Project Charter
  27. What is Processes in PMI terminology?
    • Each process represents something that should be considered or completed on each project
    • Processes overlap and interact throughout a project or phase

    • Processes are described in terms of:
    • Inputs (documents, plans, designs, etc.)
    • Tools and Techniques (mechanisms applied to inputs)
    • Outputs (documents, products, etc.)
  28. Project Phase has...
    • Divisions within a project to help manage the completion of a major deliverable.
    • Phase End Reviews
    • Kill points
    • Decision points
  29. What are 6 performance domain?
    • Performance Domains define skills required by the project manager to complete the processes
    • Initiating
    • Planning
    • Executing
    • Monitoring and Controlling
    • Closing
    • Professional and Social Responsibility
  30. What is Enterprise Environmental Factors
    Any or all external environmental factors and internal organizational environmental factors that surround or influence the project's success
  31. Factors from the enterprises involved in the project are...
    • Organizational culture and structure
    • Infrastructure(経済[構造]基盤)
    • Existing resources
    • Commercial databases
    • Market conditions
    • Project management software
  32. What is Organizational Process Assets?
    Organizational Process Assets are any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the project’s success
  33. What can be included in Organizational Process Assets?
    Informal and formal organizational plans, processes, procedures and guidelines

    • The organization's corporate knowledge base
    • Historical information
    • Documentation templates
    • Lessons learned
  34. What are 5 Key documents to manage expectaiton?
    • project charter
    • scope stamtement (SOW)
    • responsibility matrix
    • communication plan
    • project proposal
  35. List the factors of Scoep Baseline
    • Scope Statement
    • WBS
    • WBS Dictionary
  36. Scope Statement includes...
    • Product scope description
    • Project deliverables
    • Product user acceptance criteria
    • Project boundaries
    • Project constraints
    • Project assumptions
  37. What is Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
    • A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team
    • -to accomplish the project objectives
    • -to create the required deliverables.

    It organized and defines the total scope of the project

    • It is made out of
    • -Work Package
    • -Control Account
  38. What is Work Package?
    • A deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure
    • The point at which cost and activity durations can be reliably estimated and managed.
  39. What is Control Account?
    • A control account is a natural management point for planning and control since it representsthe work assigned to one responsible organizational element on one project workbreakdown structure element.
    • A control account is a management control point where scope, cost and schedule are integrated and compared to the earned value for performance measurement.
    • Control accounts are placed at selected management points in the WBS
    • Control accounts are associated with one or more work packages
    • WBSによるプロジェクトマネジメントにおいて、コストコントロールおよび評価を行うための基本単位。コストアカウントという場合もある。
    • WBSではプロジェクトを管理する基本単位としてワークパッケージを設定し、これにアクティビティ、人員/リソース、予算/コストを割り当てる。しかし、プロジェクトの規模や期間によってはスケジュールや人員のコントロールとは粒度の異なる単位で予算配賦やコストコントロールを行った方が都合のよい場合もある。このとき設定される管理単位がコントロールアカウントで、通常
    • いくつかのワークパッケージを含む。
    • コントロールアカウント単位に立てる計画/計画書をコントロールアカウント・プラン(CAP)という。EVMSなどによるコスト計画などが記載される。原則としてはコントロールアカウントごとに責任者(アカウントマネージャ)を置き、予算/コスト管理を行うことが望ましい。
  40. What is WBS Dictionary?
    A document that describes each component in the work breakdown structure (WBS).
  41. For each WBS component, the WBS Dictionary includes...
    • A brief definition of the scope or statement of work
    • Defined deliverables
    • A list of associated activities
    • A list of milestones
    • Responsible organization
    • Start and end dates
    • Resources require
    • Estimate of cost
    • Charge number
    • Contract information
    • Quality requirements
    • Technical references to facilitate performance of the work
  42. What is Statement of Work?
    • formal document that captures and defines the work activities, deliverables and timeline a vendor will execute against in performance of specified work for a client. Detailed requirements and pricing are usually included in the Statement Of Work, along with standard regulatory and governance terms and conditions
    • 複数の人間/組織がかかわる仕事を実施するに当たり、関係者間で認識の擦り合わせを行うために、その仕事の目標や範囲、成果物、参加メンバーの役割・権限などを記した合意文書。
    • SOWには、仕事の目標(ゴール)、範囲、内容・要求仕様、成果物・納入物の定義、納入時期・概要スケジュール、制約条件・依存関係・既知のリスク、作業のプロセス、役割分担、責任および権限、レポーティングルートやコミュニケーション指針、受け入れ基準・成功基準などを必要に応じて具体的かつ詳細に規定する。
    • SOW作成の基本手順は、まず「やるべきこと」を書き起こし、それを基にステークホルダー間で検討して、問題があれば修正する。最終的に承認・合意もしくは契約された時点で正式なルールとなる。
  43. What should be stated on SOW?
    • Purpose: Why are we doing this project? This is the question that the purpose statement attempts to answer.
    • Scope of Work: This describes roughly the work to be done in detail and specifies the hardware and software involved and the exact nature of the work to be done.
    • Work: This describes where the work is to be performed. This also specifies the location of hardware and software and where people will meet to perform the work.
    • Period of Performance: This specifies the allowable time for projects, such as start and finish time, number of hours that can be billed per week or month, where work is to be performed and anything else that relates to scheduling.
    • Deliverables Schedule: This part lists the specific deliverables, describing what is due and when.
    • Applicable Standards: This describes any industry specific standards that need to be adhered to in fulfilling the contract.
    • Acceptance Criteria: This specifies how the buyer or receiver of goods will determine if the product or service is acceptable, what objective criteria will be used to state the work is acceptable.
    • Special Requirements: This specifies any special hardware or software, specialized workforce requirements, such as degrees or certifications for personnel, travel requirements, and anything else not covered in the contract specifics.
    • Type of Contract/Payment Schedule: The project acceptance will depend on if the budget available will be enough to cover the work required. Therefore payments breakdown whether up front or phased will be negotiated very early at this stage.
    • Miscellaneous: There are many items that do not form part of the main negotiations but are nonetheless very important to the project. They seem minor but being overlooked or forgotten could pose problems for the project.
  44. What is included in Projedct Management Plan?
    • Schedule
    • Cost
    • Communications management plan
    • Responsibility Matrix
    • Change management plan
    • risk management plan
  45. Of the following, which is not part of the Triple Constraint?

    1)Quality
    2)Time
    3)Scope
    4)Cost
    5)None of the Above
    1)Quality
  46. Which of the following is likely to be part of an operation?

    1)Providing water to a community
    2)Designing an electrical grid for a new community
    3)Building a dam as a source of water and electricity
    4)Informing the community regarding changes to the electricitycompany services
    5)None of the Above
    1)Providing water to a community
  47. A series of activities to create a unique product or service by a specific date is best described as which of the following?

    1)An operation
    2)A program
    3)A project
    4)A subproject
    5)None of the Above
    3)A project
  48. Why would an organization divide a project into phases?

    1)To provide better management and control of a project
    2)To identity the resources necessary to complete a phase of the project
    3)To identify the work that will likely happen within a phase of the project
    4)To define and control the cash requirements within each phaseof a project
    5)All of the Above
    5)All of the Above
  49. An organization has elected to kill a project. Most likely, when is this decision made?

    1)At the start of a phase
    2)When a project is not meeting the financial requirements
    3)At the end of a phase
    4)When technology has superseded some of the technology used within the project
    5)At a Steering Committee Meeting
    3)At the end of a phase
  50. "Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of a an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase" this process is....
    Initiating
  51. "Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve" this process is...
    Planning
  52. "Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications" this process is...
    Executing
  53. "Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify and any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes" this process is...
    Monitoring and Controlling
  54. "Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase" this process is...
    Closing
  55. Project Integration Management includes...
    • the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process groups
    • It includes the unification, consolidation, articulation and integrative actions crucial to project completion
  56. What is the TOOL and TECHNIQUE of Project Integration Management?
    • Project Management Information System (PMIS) – the set of tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate outputs of project management processes
    • Project management methodology – the defined set of processes and related control functions
    • Expert Judgment – commonly found in planning processes
  57. Project Integration Management require integration of...
    • Project work with ongoing operations
    • Schedule, budget, measurement and reporting
    • Skills, knowledge and deliverables from vendors, stakeholders, and performing organization
  58. What are processes of Project Integration Management
    • 1.Develop Project Charter (initiating)
    • 2.Develop Project Management Plan (Planning)
    • 3.Direct and Manage Project Execution (Executing)
    • 4.Monitor and Control Project Work (Monitor & Controlling)
    • 5.Perform Integrated Change Control (Monitor & Controlling)
    • 6.Close Project or Phase (Closing)
  59. Develop Project Charter is the process of...
    • Developing a document that formally authorizes a project or a phase
    • Documenting initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholder’s needs and expectations
  60. "A document (output) issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities" This document is called...
    Project Charter
  61. Project Charter provides...
    • Project purpose or justification
    • Measureable project objectives and related success criteria
    • High-level requirements
    • High-level project description and product characteristics
    • Summary milestone schedule
    • Summary budget
    • Project approval requirements (what constitutes success, who decides, who signs off)
    • Assigned project manager, responsibility and authority level
    • Name and responsibility of person or people authorizing project charter
  62. Planning is continuous PDCA. What is PDCA?
    • Plan
    • Do
    • Check
    • Act
  63. What is the reasons for Planning
    • It reduces uncertainty
    • It improves efficiency of work
    • It helps to develop a better understanding of objectives
    • It provides basis for monitoring and controlling
  64. The process of documenting the actions for Develop Project Management Plan is necessary to
    • Define
    • Prepare
    • Integrate
    • Coordinate all subsidiary plans
  65. Direct and Manage Project Execution is the process of...
    performing the work defined in the project management plan to achieve the project's objectives
  66. On Direct and Manage Project Execution, Requires implementation of approved changes covering...
    • Corrective Action
    • Preventive Action
    • Defect Repair
  67. What is Corrective Action?
    Documented direction for executing project work to bring expected future performance of the project work in line with the Project Management Plan
  68. What is Preventive Action?
    Documented direction to perform an activity that can reduce the probability of negative consequences associated with project risks
  69. What is Defect Repair?
    Formal documented identification of a defect in a project component with a recommendation to either repair the defect or completely replace the component
  70. Monitor and Control Project Work is the process of...
    tracking, reviewing and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan
  71. Monitor and Control Project Work require 3 reports, they are...
    • Progress reports
    • Schedule reports
    • Cost reports
  72. Progress reports include...
    • Trend and variance analysis
    • Exception reports
    • Earned Value reports
  73. Schedule reports include...
    • Gantt chart
    • Milestone charts
    • Network diagrams
  74. Cost reports include...
    • S curves
    • Histograms
    • Expenditure tables
  75. Perform Integrated Change Control is the process of...
    reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan
  76. Perform Integrated Change Control used to...
    • Ensure changes are agreed upon and approved or rejected
    • Provides the process for changing project documents
    • Maintain the integrity of the baselines
    • Manage changes when they occur
  77. At "Perform Integrated Change Control", changes can be done by the aspects of...
    • External Event
    • Value added
    • An error or and omission(省略) in defining Scope on Product and/or Project
    • Implementation of Risk Reduction on Contingency(不測[不慮の]の事態) and/or Work-around(回避方法)
  78. Change Control Board is...
    • a group representing all interested parties who process all requests for change (Perform Integrated Change Control)
    • Does Change Control Meetings
  79. Steering Committee is...
    • Help to eliminate roadblocks for project success
    • Ensure resources are available to support project
  80. Close Project or Phase is process of...
    finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete the phase or project
  81. Close Project or Phase has two closing procedures, they are...
    • Administrative Closure
    • Contract Closure
  82. Administrative Closure is...
    occurs at the end of each phase and at the end of the project
  83. Contract Closure is...
    applies when procurement management processes are utilized
  84. Project Scope Management is...
    includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and ONLY the work required, to complete the project successfully.
  85. Managing the project scope is primarily concerned with defining and controlling two things. They are...
    • What is
    • What is NOT included in the project
  86. Scope Management Plan describes...
    • How the project scope will be managed
    • How formal verification and acceptance will be obtained
    • How scope changes will be identified and classified
    • How scope changes will be integrated
  87. Project Scope Management includes 5 processes, they are...
    • Collect Requirements (Planning)
    • Define Scope (Planning)
    • Create WBS (Planning)
    • Verify Scope (Manage & control)
    • Control Scope (Manage & control)
  88. Collect Requirements on "Project Scope Management" is...
    The process of defining and documenting stakeholders needs to meet the project objectives
  89. Tools and Techniques of "Collect Requirements" on "Project Scope Management" is...
    • Interviews
    • Observation
    • Questionnaires and Surveys
    • Workshops
  90. Outputs of "Collect Requirements" on "Project Scope Management" is...
    • Requirements Documentation – describes how individual requirements meet project business needs
    • Requirements Management Plan – documents how requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed throughout the project
    • Requirements Traceability Matrix – links requirements to their origin and traces them throughout the project
  91. Requirements Documentation describes...
    describes how individual requirements meet project business needs
  92. Requirements Management Plan is a documents that describes...
    how requirements will be analyzed, documented and managed throughout the project
  93. Requirements Traceability Matrix links requirements to...
    their origin and traces them throughout the project
  94. "Define Scope" on "Project Scope Management" is a process of...
    developing a detailed description of the project and product
  95. Product Scope is...
    The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result. Results are measured against the product criteria
  96. Project Scope is...
    • The WORK that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions. Completion is
    • measured against the Project Plan
  97. Completion of Project Scope is measured against the...
    Project Plan
  98. The basis for future project decisions is...
    Project Scope Statement
  99. Project Scope Statement allows Stakeholders to aree on...
    • Project Objectives
    • Project Deliverables
    • Project Constraints and Assumptions
    • Project Acceptance Criteria
  100. Scope baseline includes three things, they are...
    • Scope statement
    • WBS
    • WBS dictionary
  101. Scope statement on "Scope baseline" does...
    • Product scope description
    • Project deliverables
    • Product user acceptance criteria
    • Project constraints
    • Project assumptions
  102. Project constraints are...
    • The state, quality or sense of being restricted to a given course of action or inaction.
    • An applicable restriction or limitation, either internal or external to a project, which will affect the performance of the project or a process.
  103. A schedule constraint is...
    • any limitation or restraint place on the project schedule that affects when an activity can be scheduled.
    • Typically has fixed imposed dates
  104. Project assumptions are...
    factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration
  105. WBS Benefits can be...
    • Facilitates communication
    • Creates work packages that allow for more accurate estimates
    • Facilitates performance measurement
    • Allows for improved handling of changes
  106. A deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to be executed by the project team is called...
    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  107. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is created to...
    • to accomplish the project objectives
    • to create the required deliverables
  108. To organizes and defines the total scope of the project, it is best to make...
    Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  109. A deliverable or project work component at the lowest level of each branch of the work breakdown structure, this is called...
    Work Package in WBS
  110. The point at which cost and activity durations can be reliably estimated and managed, this is called...
    Work Package (WBS)
  111. A document that describes each component in the work breakdown structure (WBS), this is called...
    WBS dictionary
  112. For each WBS component, the WBS Dictionary includes...
    • A brief definition of the scope or statement of work
    • Defined deliverables
    • A list of associated activities
    • A list of milestones
  113. For each WBS component, the WBS Dictionary includes...
    • Responsible organization
    • Start and end dates
    • Resources require
    • Estimate of cost
    • Charge number
    • Contract information
    • Quality requirements
    • Technical references to facilitate performance of the work
  114. Verify Scope is usually completed after...
    • QC
    • at times, it is performed in parallel with QC process
  115. "Inputs" of Verify Scope are...
    • Project Management Plan :Scope baseline
    • Requirements Document
  116. At "Verify Scope" is the process to get...
    Formal agreement and acceptance of the project scope from stakeholders
  117. "Outputs" of "Verify Scope" is...
    • Accepted deliverables
    • Changerequests
    • Project document updates
  118. "Control Scope" is the process of...
    monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline
  119. "Inputs" of "Control Scope" is...
    • The Project Management Plan including...
    • Scope baseline- is compared to actual results to determine if a change corrective action or preventive action is necessary
    • Scope management plan- describes how the project scope will be managed
    • Change management plan- defines the process for managing change on the project
    • Configuration(配置) management plan-defines those items that are configurable(設定可能な), those items that require formal change control, and the process for controlling changes to such items
  120. What is "Tools and Techniques" of "Control Scope"?
    Variance(相違) Analysis
  121. What is the "Output" of "Control Scope"?
    • Work performance measurement
    • Change requests
    • Project Management Plan updates
  122. What is the purpose of a Project Charter?

    A.To formally authorize a project or a phase and document initial requirements that satisfies stakeholder's needs and expectations.
    B.To link the project, which is going to be planned, execute monitored/controlled to the ongoing work of the organization
    C. To document how the project will be planned, executed, monitored/controlled, and closed
    D.To describe the process of performing the work defined in the project
    e. None of the Above
    A.To formally authorize a project or a phase and document initial requirements that satisfies stakeholder's needs and expectations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  123. The Scope Baseline includes________

    a.Various management plans of the project b.Schedule Baseline and Cost Baseline
    c.Statement of Work and Product Configuration
    d.Scope Statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary
    e. None of the Above
    d.Scope Statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary
  124. Product acceptance criteria should be stated in which document?

    A.The project scope statement
    B. Work breakdown structure
    C.The resource assignments
    D.Project scope management plan
    e.None of the Above
    A.The project scope statement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  125. You recently took over the assignment on a project and the project charter has been developed. What is the appropriate next step for you to take?

    A. Get approval for the project management plan.
    B.Develop management plans.
    C.Develop the risk register.
    D.Develop the project milestone schedule.
    e.None of the Above
    B.Develop management plans.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  126. Which statement describes the best handling of assumptions in the Initiating Process Group?

    A)It is the responsibility of the sales person in charge toidentify all risks related to the customer's project.
    B)Managing and organizing assumptions means avoiding risks right from the beginning of the project.
    C)Organizational, environmental and external assumptions should be addressed by the project charter.
    D)Risks are a sign of uncertainty. Avoiding all uncertainties means that a project should have no risks at all.
    C)Organizational, environmental and external assumptions should be addressed by the project charter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  127. Project Scheduling defines...
    • The planned dates for performing schedule activities
    • The planned dates for meeting schedule milestones
  128. Milestone is...
    A significant event or point in a project
  129. Project Scheduling is the process by which decisions are made concerning...
    • Activities to be accomplished
    • The time during which activities are to be completed
    • Resources (personnel, organization, etc) that will accomplish the activities
  130. Project Time Management benefits...
    • Improved project communication
    • Decomposition(分解) of work is easier
    • Estimates are more accurate
    • Identify the critical path
    • Performance Measurement is easier
    • Greater management control
  131. Schedule Management Plan is part of...
    • Develop Project Management Plan and Performed during Integration
    • Planning activity performed prior to Project Time Management
  132. Schedule Management Plan is done by which member?
    Planning activity performed with project team
  133. The document that establishes the criteria and
    the activities for developing and controlling the Project Schedule is called...
    Schedule Management Plan
  134. Defines how schedule contingencies(不測[不慮の]の事態) will be reported and assessed. This is done at...
    Schedule Management Plan
  135. At Schedule Manamgement Plan, you will do three thing. They are...
    • Selects a scheduling tool
    • Selects a scheduling methodology (i.e., Critical Path)
    • Sets the format and establishes criteria for developing andcontrolling the project schedule
  136. Project Time Management include 6 processes. They are...
    • Define Activities(planning)
    • Sequence Activities(planning)
    • Estimate Activity Resources(planning)
    • Estimate Activity Durations(planning)
    • Develop Schedule (planning)
    • Control Schedule (control & monitor)
  137. "Define Activities" on Project Time Management is the process of...
    identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
  138. "Sequence Activities" in the Project Time Management is the process of...
    identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities
  139. "Estimate Activity Resources" in Project Time Management is the process of...
    estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
  140. "Estimate Activity Durations" in Project Time Management is the process of...
    approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
  141. "Develop Schedule" in Project Time Management is the process of...
    analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
  142. "Control Schedule" in Project Time Management is process of...
    monitoring the status of the project to update project progress and managing changes to the schedule baseline
  143. INPUT of "Define Activities" are...
    • WBS
    • The organization's experience with similar past projects
    • Subdivide project deliverables into smaller elements to provide greater control
  144. The work necessary to complete the work package is called...
    Activities
  145. Output of "Define Activities" are...
    • Activity list
    • Milestone list
  146. "Tools and Techniques" of "Define Activities" are...
    • Decomposition
    • Rolling Wave Planning (Progressive Elaboration)
    • Templates (i.e., from prior and similar projects)
    • Expert Judgment
  147. Decomposition means...
    Planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables
  148. Project Scope is...
    The work to be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified functions and features
  149. "Rolling Wave Planning" is...
    • 短期的に完了しなければならない作業を詳細に計画する一方で、遠い将来の作業はWBSの比較的上位レベルで計画する段階的詳細化の計画技法。
    • プロジェクト・ライフサイクルにおいて、プロジェクト開始時点では、情報が限られていたり細部まで要件が明確になっていなかったりすることが多く、ワーク・パッケージ・レベルまで要素成果物や作業を分解することが難しいとされています。したがって、実際には開始当初はワーク・パッケージよりも上位の妥当なWBS要素レベルまでの分解に留め、機能仕様や基本設計が漸次明確になるのを待って下位レベルまで分解することになります。この方法に基づいて計画を詳細化することを、「ローリング・ウェーブ計画法」と呼んでいます。
  150. プロジェクトの3大特性とは?
    • 段階的詳細化 (Progressive Elaboraton)
    • 有期性 (have a well defined beginning and end)
    • 独自のプロダクト、サービス、所産 (create unique product, service, or result)
  151. Organizes the tasks in the order they are expected to be performed, is called...
    Sequence Activities (Project Time Management)
  152. Sequencing Approach on "Sequence Activities"are...
    • Use the Activity List
    • Determine immediate predecessor and successor
    • Each activity should have at least one predecessor and at least one successor
  153. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) is...
    • プロジェクトなどの作業工程を表すネットワーク図の1つで、依存関係にある2つの工程間の順序を論理的に4つの関係で定義することで表記する方法のこと。
    • Tool for scheduling activities in a project plan.
    • It is a method of constructing a project schedule network diagram that uses boxes, referred to as nodes, to represent activities and connects them with arrows that show the dependencies.
  154. Precedence Diagram Method shows...
    • Critical Tasks, noncritical tasks, and slack time
    • Shows the relationship of the tasks to each other
    • Allows for what-if, worst-case, best-case and most likely scenario
  155. 4 Types of logical relationships on PDM are...
    • Finish to Start:Predecessor must finish before Successor can start
    • Start to Start:Predecessor must start before Successor can start
    • Finish to Finish:Predecessor must finish before Successor can finish
    • Start to Finish:Predecessor must start before Successor can finish
  156. 3 Types of Dependency(依存[従属]状態[関係]) Determinations are used to sequence the activities. They are...
    • Mandatory:Contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work (i.e., need foundation to build building on). Alsocalled “hard logic.”
    • Discretionary (自分の判断で使える): Also called “soft logic,” preferential(優先の) logic and preferred logic. Determined by project team.
    • External: Dependencies outside the project teams control, such as a outside government hearing
  157. When a successor's start or finish can be delayed from the predecessor's start or finish, it is called...
    Lag (Sequence Activities)
  158. If the successor's start can occur before the predecessor's start or finish, there is lead time, it is called...
    Lead (Sequence Activities)
  159. 2 Diagramming Methods on "Sequence Activities" are...
    • AON – Activity on Node
    • AOA – Activity on Arrow
  160. Activity on Node
    • Used boxes (rectangles) called nodes to represent activities
    • Connects activities with arrows to show logical relations (Precedence Relationships) and shows dependencies
    • Referred to Critical Path Method (CPM) if duration is included
  161. AOA – Activity on Arrow
    • Arrows represent activities
    • Connected at nodes showing dependencies
    • Uses only Finish-to-Start dependencies Finish to Start: Predecessor must finish before Successor can start
  162. At "Estimate Activity Resources", it Estimate the types and quantities of...
    • People
    • Equipment
    • Material
    • Facilities
    • Supplies
  163. "Inputs" of Estimate Activity Resources are...
    • Activity list (from Define Activities) provides activities for resources
    • Resource calendars 1)Availability of resources 2) Human resources - stateavailability, capabilities and skills
  164. Output of "Estimate Activity Resources" are...
    • Activity resource requirements (types and quantities for each activity)
    • Resource breakdown structure
  165. Resource breakdown structures are...
    • A hierarchical(階級組織の) structure of the resources
    • Shows resource category (labor, material, equipment) and resource type (skill level, grade level)
    • Helpful to evaluate resource utilization(利用)
  166. Tools and Techniques of "Estimate Activity Resources" are...
    • Expert Judgment
    • Bottom-up estimating
    • Project management software
    • Alternative analysis
  167. "Estimate Activity Duration" in "Project Time Management" is the process of...
    approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
  168. Sources of information for Estimates in "Estimate Activity Duration" is...
    • Activity list (from Define Activities) provides activities for activity durations
    • Historical
    • Project Files
    • Commercial Databases
    • Team Knowledge
  169. What is the formula of PERT分析 (Weighted Average)
    T = (O + 4M + P)/6

    • T=weighted average time
    • O=lowest or optimistic time
    • M=most likely time
    • P=highest or pessimistic time

    (Estimate Activity Durations)
  170. What is the formula of 3-Point Estimate?
    T = (O + M + P)/3

    • T=weighted average time
    • O=lowest or optimistic time
    • M=most likely time
    • P=highest or pessimistic time

    (Estimate Activity Durations)
  171. Tools and Techniques for "Estimating Activity Duration" are...
    • Expert judgment
    • Delphi technique
    • Analogous estimates
    • Parametric estimates
  172. Pert分析とは?
    • Program Evaluation and Review Technique
    • タスクの期間 (楽観値)、期間 (悲観値)、および期間 (期待値)をスケジュールに指定すると、Project によって、この 3 種類のタスク期間の加重平均が計算されます。また、楽観、悲観、および期待の各タスク期間を個別に使い、最早終了日、最遅終了日、およびプロジェクト終了日として最も可能性の高い日付を算出することもできます。
  173. Analogous estimates is...
    • Uses previous projects or similar projects as basis to estimate durations
    • Less costly than bottom-up
    • Less time consuming
    • Less accurate

    (Estimating Activity Duration)
  174. Parametric estimate is...
    • Based on statistical relationship between historical data and variables
    • Examples: $/sq foot, $/lines of code per hr, $ / lb, etc)
    • Top Down estimate
    • Less costly
    • Less time consuming
    • Less accurate

    (Estimating Activity Duration)
  175. What is Delphi technique? (Estimate Activity Duration)
    • Info gathered anonymously to reach a consensus
    • Facilitator used to complete questionnaires and distribute them to experts
    • Facilitator gathers info, summarizes it, then re-circulates it back to experts for further comment.
    • Takes a few rounds to complete the process

    デルファイ法とは、匿名で参加する専門家のコンセンサスを形成する技術のこと。
  176. Schedule can be developed using the following...
    • Gantt Chart (Bar Chart)
    • Milestone Chart
    • Network Diagrams
  177. Tools and Techniques of "Develop Schedule" is...
    • Critical Path Method
    • Critical Chain Method
    • Resource Leveling
  178. Critical Path is
    The sequence of schedule activities that: 1)Determines the duration of the project 2) It is the longest path through the project
  179. Critical Path answers...
    • How long will it take to complete the project
    • Which activities, events or paths, if delayed, will delay the completion of the project
    • What the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the project
  180. Forward Pass on Critical Path is...
    • Start time of the project is zero(0)
    • Early Start = Early Finish of immediate predecessor (Predecessor => Successor)
    • Early Finish = Early Start plus Duration
    • A successor starts when its predecessors are complete
  181. Early Finish is...
    early start plus duration
  182. Backward Pass on Critical Path is...
    • Starting Point: Project Late Finish = Project Early Finish
    • Late Start = Late Finish minus Duration
    • Late Finish = the earliest late start of all the successors activities
  183. Late Start is...
    Late Finish minus duration
  184. Another name of Float is called
    slack
  185. How to calculate float?
    Late finish – Early finish
  186. What is Total Float?
    Time that a scheduled activity can be delayed, from its early start date, without delaying the project finish date
  187. What is Free Float?
    Time that a scheduled activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of successor activities
  188. Resource Leveling is...
    An analysis technique applied to the schedule AFTER initial Critical Path determined (Estimating Activity Duration)
  189. Resource Leveling is used when...
    resources are only available at certain times, in limited quantities, to keep resource usage at a constant level or when over-allocated, such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same period
  190. Output of "Develop Schedule" is...
    • Project Schedule (Milestone Chart, Gantt (Bar Chart), Project Network Diagrams)
    • Schedule Baseline
  191. Milestone Chart shows...
    • key events – not details
    • Effective for presentations
    • Can use with summary Gantt chart
  192. Gantt Chart (Bar Chart) shows...
    • activities against time
    • dependencies
    • Used to determine critical path, float, projected completion date
    • Resource assessments (評価) and time requirements
  193. Network Diagrams shows...
    • Highlights critical activities
    • Promotes total integration
    • Permits simulation
    • Determines projected completion date with time-scaled network diagrams
    • Assesses(評価する) resource and time requirements
    • Facilitates “what-if” analysis
  194. Project Schedule VS Schedule Baseline
    • Project Schedule is a "living" document, Schedule Baseline is "frozen"
    • Project Schedule is the "actual", Baseline is "plan"
    • Project Scheudle is Project Document, Schedule Baseline is part of the Project management Document
  195. Input of "Control Schedule" are...
    • Project Management Plan
    • Schedule Management Plan
    • Project Schedule Baseline
  196. What is Schedule Management Plan?
    Explains how the schedule will be managed and controlled
  197. What is the Output of "Control Schedule"
    • Work Performance Measurements
    • Updates to Project Management Plan, Schedule, Org Process Assets
    • Change requests
  198. What are Tool and Techniques of "Control Schedule"?
    • Performance Reviews
    • Variance Analysis
    • Project Management Software
    • Resource Leveling
    • Schedule Compression
  199. What are the ways to Compress (Control) Schedule?
    • Fast Tracking – Re-plan serial activities to be more in parallel versus sequential
    • Crashing – Adding resources to shorten the duration of critical path activities 1)Only applies to the critical path 2)Can change the critical path
    • Remove activities from critical path
    • Increase the number of work hours per day
  200. The project you have been working completing is, in general, considered to be finished. You want to start the closing process. What must have been attained to begin this process?

    1) The project deliverables must have been accepted
    2) The Organizational process assets must have been updated
    3) The final product, service or result transition must have been finished
    4) The lessons learned must have been organized into a data base
    5) None of the Above
    1) The project deliverables must have been accepted
  201. A management point in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) used to consolidate and process work package data and forward the results to the project manager is called_____

    1)Chart of accounts
    2)Control limit
    3)Account limit
    4)Control account
    5)None of the Above
    4)Control account
  202. While planning a project, you are defining activities. Which of the following is not a result of that process?

    1) Work Breakdown Structure
    2) Activity list
    3) Activity attributes
    4) Milestone list
    5) All of the Above
    1) Work Breakdown Structure
  203. Which is not a point used for Three-point estimation?

    1) Optimistic estimate
    2) Most likely estimate
    3) Budget estimate
    4) Pessimistic estimate
    5) Some of the Above
    3) Budget estimate
  204. What is not true for Change requests?

    1) Change requests should always be handled in a controlled andintegrative fashion
    2) Change requests surpassing the formal change control processes can lead to Scope creep
    3) Change requests are always a sign of bad planning and should therefore be avoided
    4)Professionally managed, change requests can help improving a project and resolving emerging problems
    5) All of the Above
    3) Change requests are always a sign of bad planning and should therefore be avoided
  205. Cost Management Plan is...
    The document that sets out the format and establishes the activities and criteria for planning, structuring, and controlling project costs.
  206. Rough Order of Magnitude(ROM) on cost management plan is...
    +/- 50%
  207. Budget Estimate on cost management plan is...
    -10% - +25% (Kerzner 10th Ed)
  208. Definitive(決定的な) Estimate on cost management plan is...
    -5% - +10% (Kerzner 10th Edition)
  209. These costs are directly attributable to the work on the project. Labor, material and consultant costs. This cost is called...
    Direct Costs
  210. Overhead items or costs for the benefit of more that one project. Taxes, janitorial services, labor fringe benefits. This cost is called...
    Indirect Costs
  211. The cost change as a result of the amount of work completed. Material and labor. This cost is called...
    Variable Costs
  212. The costs do not change as production changes. Rent. Set-up a machine. This cost is called...
    Fixed Costs
  213. Processes of Project Cost Management are...
    • Estimate Costs (Planning)
    • Determine Budget (Planning)
    • Control Costs (Control and Monitor)
  214. Estimate Costs is the process of...
    developing an approximation of the monetary(通貨の) resources needed to complete project activities
  215. Determine Budget is the process of...
    • developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities Control Costs
    • aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost performance baseline
  216. Control Costs is the process of...
    monitoring the status of the project to update the project budget and managing to the cost baseline
  217. Input of Estimate Costs are...
    • Scope baseline
    • Project schedule
    • Human resource plan
    • Risk register
    • Enterprise environmental factors
    • Organizational process assets
  218. Human resource plan are...
    Rates of personnel of different levels (Estimate Costs on Project Cost Management)
  219. Risk register are...
    Costs to reduce project risks, such as delays and availability of machine (Estimate Costs on Project Cost Management)
  220. Enterprise environmental factors are...
    Market conditions and Published commercial info (Estimate Costs on Project Cost Management)
  221. Organizational process assets are...
    Costing templates, Historical information, Lessons learned (Estimate Costs on Project Cost Management)
  222. Tools and Techniques of Estimate Costs are...
    • Expert Judgment
    • Analogous estimating
    • Parametric estimating
    • Bottom-up estimating
    • Three point and average estimates
    • Reserve(蓄え) analysis
    • Cost of quality
    • Project management estimating software
    • Vendor(売る人) bid analysis
  223. Bottom-up estimating are...
    estimating components(構成要素) of the work, such as work packages and activities. It information is then summarized
  224. Reserve analysis are...
    The inclusion of contingency reserves or contingency(不測[不慮の]の事態) allowances to account of uncertainty
  225. Cost of quality is...
    • A method of determining the costs incurred(招く) to ensure quality
    • Cost of Conformance (Prevention and appraisal costs). Compliance to requirements
    • Cost of Non-conformance (Failure Costs). Rework, warranty costs, loss of reputation
  226. Vendor bid analysis is...
    the info from vendors helps provide “should costs”
  227. Output of Estimate cost are...
    • Activity cost estimates
    • Basis of estimates (BOE)
  228. Activity cost estimates are...
    • Cost estimates for each activity within a work package are aggregated(集まる) to obtain a cost estimate for each work package.
    • Activities can be summarized into such groupings as direct labor, materials, equipment, services, etc.
  229. Basis of estimates (BOE) are...
    Documentation on how the cost estimates were derived
  230. Cost Performance Baseline is...
    • the authorized time-phased budget at completion (BAC) used to measure, monitor and control overall cost performance on a project
    • developed as a summation of the approved budgets by time period
  231. Input of Determine Budget are...
    • Activity Cost Estimates- from Estimate Costs - Outputs
    • BOE-from Estimate Costs - Outputs
    • Scope baseline- Scope Statement, WBS and WBS Dictionary
    • Project schedule
    • Resource calendars- info on who is assigned to the project and for how long
    • Contract-provides cost info
    • Org Process Assets(資源)- such as reporting requirements
  232. Tools and Techniques of Determine Budget are...
    • Cost aggregation(集団)
    • Reserve analysis
    • Expert judgment
    • Historical relationships
    • Funding limit reconciliation(和解)
  233. Cost aggregation are...
    summary of costs, aggregated in accordance with WBS
  234. Reserve analysis establishes(成立させる)...
    • Contingency reserves- money for unplanned changes
    • Management reserves- not approved but budgeted item, not part of cost performance baseline
  235. Historical relationships are such as...
    • Parametric estimate
    • Analogous estimate
  236. Funding limit reconciliation(和解) are...
    Evaluation of the spending requirements on the project to when and if funds are available
  237. Output of Determine Budget are...
    • Cost performance baseline
    • Project funding requirements
    • Project document updates
  238. Control costs are process of...
    monitoring the status of the project to: 1.Update the project budget and 2.Manage to the cost baseline
  239. Input of Control Costs are...
    • Project management plan
    • Project funding requirements
    • Work performance information
    • Organizational process assets
  240. Project funding requirements on Control Costs are...
    The total funds required, which include the cost baseline PLUS management reserve
  241. Work performance information on Control Costs are...
    • Includes info about project progress, such as which deliverables have started, their progress and which deliverables have finished
    • It also includes costs that have been authorized and incurred, and estimates for completing project work
  242. Organizational process assets on Control Costs are...
    • Control related company policies, procedures and guidelines
    • Organizational monitoring and reporting methods
  243. Tools and Techniques on Control Cost are...
    • Earned value management
    • Forecasting (予測)
    • To-complete performance Index (TCPI)
    • Performance reviews
    • Variance analysis
    • Project management software
  244. Earned value management on Control Cost is
    • Is a method of performance measurement.
    • It integrates scope, cost and schedule measures to help assess and measure project performance and progress
  245. Forecasting on Control Cost are...
    • A new / updated budget for the remaining work (ETC)
    • Actual costs plus forecast (updated / new budget)
  246. To- complete performance Index (TCPI) on Control Cost is...
    Is a calculated projection(予測) of cost performance that must be achieved on the remaining work to meet a specified management goal, such as meeting the original budget
  247. Performance reviews on Control Costs compares..
    • Cost performance over time
    • Schedule activities or work packages overrunning and under-running the budget
    • Estimated funds needed to complete work
  248. Variance analysis on Cost Controls
    • Used to assess(評価する) the magnitude of variation to cost baseline
    • Includes determining cause and degree of variance relative to the cost performance baseline
  249. Output of Control Costs are...
    • Work performance measurements
    • Budget forecasts
    • Organizational process assets updates
    • Change requests
    • Project management plan updates
    • Project document updates:The info is documented and communicated to Stakeholders
  250. Definition of Earned Value is...
    The value of work performed, expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work 1)For a schedule activity or 2)For a WBS component
  251. Another name of Earned Value is called...
    Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)
  252. Earened Value provides...
    objective, quantifiable (定量化できる) measurement of work that has been accomplished
  253. Benefit of Earned Value is...
    • Integrates scope, schedule & resources
    • It provides an objective assessment (評価) of project variances(相違)
    • It promotes a common understanding of project performance through common metrics
    • Provides a consistent methodology for measuring performance within and across projects complished
    • Gives the stakeholders a feeling that you have the project under control
    • A solid basis to work from and a basis for extra work claims, if needed
    • A basis for baseline maintenance, which may improve quality and communication
    • Provides the ability to measure project performance
  254. Work Authorization System is...
    subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of the formal written procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time and in the proper sequence. It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations
  255. Work Authorization is a permission...
    and direction to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package
  256. Work Authorization Documentation should include
    • WBS identification
    • A clearly defined scope of work
    • Constraints and Assumptions
    • A realistic budget
    • Special considerations
  257. Key Requirements for Project Tracking are...
    • A schedule and cost baseline
    • Timely reporting of actual work expended on activities
    • Accurate reporting of estimates-to-complete (ETC) project activities (ETC: The expected cost needed to complete all the remaining work for a schedule activity, WBS component or the project. )
  258. Planned Value (PV) is
    the authorized budget assigned to the work to be accomplished for an activity or work breakdown structure component
  259. Actual Cost (AC) is
    Total costs actually incurred(招く) and recorded in accomplishing work performed during a given time period for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component
  260. Earned Value Tracking/Measurement Commonly used options such as...
    • Percent Complete: Reported percent of the budgeted item
    • 50/50: 50% of budget at start and 50% earned at completion(Variations are : 20/80, 10/90, etc.)
    • Milestone: Completion of work “products” within a work package represent increments of value earned
    • Level of Effort (LOE): Often used for project mgmt / supervision.(監督) Level amt of effort earned over time
  261. Earned Value Technique (EVT) are...
    • The objective, quantified measurement of work accomplished
    • Planned value increments constituting the performance measurement baseline
    • Actual usage/consumption of resources
    • he primary difference between an adequate management system and a performance measurement system
  262. Formula of Schedule Variance (SV)
    SV=EV-PV
  263. Formula of Cost Variance (CV):
    CV=EV-AC
  264. Formula of Schedule Performance Index (SPI):
    SPI=EV/PV
  265. Formula of Cost Performance Index (CPI):
    CPI=EV/AC
  266. Formula of Estimate at Complete (EAC):
    • EAC=BAC/CPI
    • EAC=AC+ETC
  267. Formula of Estimate to Complete (ETC):
    ETC=EAC-AC
  268. Formula To Complete Performance Index (TCPI)
    TCPI=(BAC– EV)/(BAC-AC)
  269. At the beginning of the project the BAC(Budget at Complete) is equal to...
    EAC (Estimate at Complete)
  270. Which of the following is not one of the five (5) project management groups?

    A.Closing
    B.Communicating
    C.Executing
    D.Initiating
    E.Planning
    B.Communicating
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  271. You are the project manager and you want to control your project schedule. As such, you are reanalyzing the project to predict the project duration. You do this by analyzing the sequence of activities, especially those with the least amount of scheduling flexibility. What technique are you using?

    A.Flowcharting
    B.Precedence diagramming
    C.Work breakdown structure (WBS)
    D.Critical path method
    D.Critical path method
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  272. A management point in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) used to consolidate and process work package data and forward the results to the project manager is called:
    A.Chart of accounts
    B.Account limit
    C.Control limit
    D.Control account
    e.Some of the Above
    D.Control account
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  273. You are performing Integrated Change Control. Which of the following will not be part of what you do?
    A.Documenting the impact of requested changes
    B.Performing milestone trend analysis
    C.Reviewing and approving change requests
    D.Maintaining the integrity of the baselines of the project
    B.Performing milestone trend analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  274. An analytical technique that uses three cost or duration estimates to develop an estimate is average. Which of the following is not included?
    A.Most likely estimate
    B.Optimistic estimate
    C.Budget estimate
    D.Pessimistic estimate
    C.Budget estimate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  275. Respect is:
    A.A duty to show a high regard for oneself, others, and the resources entrusted.
    B.Accepting a level of information which may lead to disrespectful behavior.
    C.Limited to respecting the physical and intellectual property rights of others.
    D.A limitation to trust, confidence and performance excellence through cooperation.
    A.A duty to show a high regard for oneself, others, and the resources entrusted.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  276. As a leader, how should you deem ethical conduct?
    A.Ethical conduct is all right as long as it does not impact the achievement of objectives and does not damage the performing organization’s immediate options for profits.
    B.There are often dilemma situations in business. Then you may have to suspend your integrity and do what is appropriate. There may be long term negative effects, but these are not your responsibility.
    C.You should ensure ethical conduct throughout the team by use of means including recognition and awards and in tight cooperation with team members’ line managers.
    D.You are the role model for the team. Your personal integrity demonstrates the desired skills, behavior and attitudes whose adoption may benefit team members.
    D.You are the role model for the team. Your personal integrity demonstrates the desired skills, behavior and attitudes whose adoption may benefit team members.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  277. You are using a phase approach to manage your project. What is a key consideration?
    A.Approaching phase gates early is a common signal that project planning has been poor.
    B.Phases are often called gates or kill points when used to eliminate weak team members
    C.The order of the phases must be consecutive with no overlap to allow for proper use of gates and kill points.
    d.All of the Above
    C.The order of the phases must be consecutive with no overlap to allow for proper use of gates and kill points.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  278. You are identifying key stakeholders for your project. Which of the following is not included in any case?
    A.Project manager and end users
    B.The Sponsor
    C.Project team and customer
    D.Media representatives
    e.None of the Above
    D.Media representatives
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  279. When running a project as a project manager, what should be your focus during the Executing process?
    A.Avoiding third-party influence.
    B.Ensuring the accountability for errors.
    C.Coordinating people and resources.
    D.Actually performing the project work.
    C.Coordinating people and resources.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  280. Which of the following are generally illustrated better with a bar chart than a network diagram?
    A.Project progress or status
    B.Critical paths
    C.Resource trade-offs
    D.Logical relationships
    A.Project progress or status
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  281. While planning a project, you are defining activities. Which of the following is not a result of that process?
    A.Milestone list
    B.Activity attributes
    C.Work Breakdown Structure
    D.Activity list
    e.Some of the Above
    C.Work Breakdown Structure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  282. Which statement is false? Progressive elaboration of project scope…
    A.…signals a weakness in the scope definition process, caused by incomplete contracts and specifications.
    B.…when properly managed, integrates elaboration of project and deliverable specifications.
    C.…is a characteristic of projects that accompanies the concepts of temporary and unique
    D.…means developing in steps. It should not be confused with scope creep.
    e.Some of the above
    A.…signals a weakness in the scope definition process, caused by incomplete contracts and specifications.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  283. As a project manager you can assign any one of two team members to a highly coveted task. Both are equally capable, but one is a member of your personal in-group. To the other one, you are more distance and do not have the close friendship. What should you do?
    A.You select your personal in-group person. The trusted relation will greatly benefit the project.
    B.You decide to delegate the decision to a third team member to avoid the conflict.
    C.You select the person not in your in-group to avoid misunderstandings
    D.You disclose the situation to the stakeholders and solicit a joint decision.
    D.You disclose the situation to the stakeholders and solicit a joint decision.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  284. What is not true for project deliverables?
    A.Once the project deliverables have been identified, their description should not be changed any more.
    B.The acceptance process for deliverables and how rejection will be addressed should be described in the contract.
    C.Project deliverables should be identified, described and agreed upon as early as possible in the project
    D.Project deliverables may be products, capabilities for services or other kinds of results
    e.None of the Above
    A.Once the project deliverables have been identified, their description should not be changed any more.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  285. You are going to take over a brand new project and will be the project manager. However, the organization is unknown to you. Which of the following is the most important to review and investigate during the chartering process?
    A.Project risk register.
    B.Enterprise environmental factors.
    C.Team performance reports.
    D.The project management plan.
    B.Enterprise environmental factors.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  286. Product acceptance criteria should be laid down in which document?
    A.Project scope statement
    B.Work breakdown structure
    C.Project scope management plan
    D.Resource assignments
    A.Project scope statement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  287. You recently took over a project that has already started. The project charter has been developed. What is an appropriate next step for you to take?
    A.Develop the risk register.
    B.Get official approval for the project management plan.
    C.Develop the management plans.
    D.Develop the project milestone schedule.
    C.Develop the management plans.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  288. Which statement describes the best handling of assumptions during the initiating processes?
    A.Organizational, environmental and external assumptions should be addressed in the project charter.
    B.Risks are a sign of uncertainty. Avoiding all uncertainties means that a project should have no risks at all.
    C.It is the responsibility of the sales person in charge to identify all risks related to a customer project.
    D.Managing and organizing assumptions means avoiding risks right at the start of the project.
    A.Organizational, environmental and external assumptions should be addressed in the project charter.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  289. Which of the following is not part of the triple constraint?
    A.Time.
    B.Scope.
    C.Quality.
    D.Cost.
    C.Quality.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  290. Of the following, which statement is most correct?
    A.A project manager must use every tool and technique as identified in PMBOK on every project.
    B.The output of each process identified in PMBOK must be included in every project
    C.The project manager must use every process identified in PMBOK on every project to be complete.
    D.The project manager should consider each of the processes identified under PMBOK and use the appropriate ones
    D.The project manager should consider each of the processes identified under PMBOK and use the appropriate ones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  291. A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization involved in a project is:
    A.The project processes
    B.The project completion
    C.The project life cycle
    D.The product life cycle
    e.All of the Above
    C.The project life cycle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  292. You are the project manager on a project that needs to be completed two weeks earlier than originally scheduled. Of the following, what would be the best course of action?
    A.Consult with the project sponsor on what to do.
    B.Reduce the quality of the product to meet the new timeline.
    C.Use the technique called crashing.
    D.Advise management of the impact of the change.
    e.All of the Above
    C.Use the technique called crashing.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  293. Which of the following is the best project management tool to use to determine the longest time the project will take to complete?
    A.Network diagram
    B.Project management plan
    C.WBS
    D.Bar chart
    A.Network diagram
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  294. What is the duration of a milestone?
    A.It is shorter than the activity it represents.
    B.There is no duration
    C.It is shorter than the duration of the longest activity
    D.It is the same length as the activity it represents
    B.There is no duration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  295. Rearranging resources so that a constant number of resources is used on your project is called:
    A.Crashing
    B.Floating
    C.Leveling
    D.Fast tracking
    C.Leveling
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  296. Which of the following is a benefit of an analogous project estimate and the best answer?
    A.The estimate is based on detailed analysis of what the work requires.
    B.It gives a top-down estimate and an overall understanding of expectations.
    C.It helps the project manager determine if the project will meet the schedule.
    D.The estimate will be close to what the work will actually require.
    B.It gives a top-down estimate and an overall understanding of expectations.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  297. Which of the following is a key output of the Verify Scope process?
    A.Improved schedule estimates.
    B.An improved project management information system.
    C.Customer acceptance of project deliverables.
    D.A more complete scope management plan
    C.Customer acceptance of project deliverables.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  298. You are the project manager on a project. During the project executing, a team member comes to you because he does not sure what work he needs to accomplish on the project. Which of the following documents contain the detailed descriptions of work packages?
    A.Project scope statement
    B.WBS dictionary
    C.Activity list
    D.The Scope management plan
    e.None of the Above
    B.WBS dictionary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  299. When should the Verify Scope process be done?
    A.During the planning process
    B.At the beginning of the project
    C.At the end of the project
    D.At the end of each phase of the project
    E.Verify Scope is not a process
    D.At the end of each phase of the project
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  300. Your project charter has been formally approved. However, there are items in the project charter that mandate specific vendors that you are to use on your project. Additionally, the charter describes the maximum amount of physical storage space and computer storage space available to your team. These are examples of:
    A.Assumptions that impact the project.
    B.Constraints that impact the project.
    C.Risks of the project
    .d.Activity resource requirements.
    e.None of the Above
    B.Constraints that impact the project.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  301. All of the following are typical components of the project management plan except…
    A.The schedule management plan
    B.The risk management plan
    C.The human resources plan
    D.The scope management plan
    E.The budget management plan
    E.The budget management plan
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  302. Aside from the fact that your project sponsor has been changed twice, your project has been going well. To perform monitor and control project work, what will you and your team focus on the most?
    A.Project schedule and performance reports
    B.Project management plan and performance reports.
    C.Approved change requests and project schedule.
    D.Project management plan and approved change requests.
    B.Project management plan and performance reports.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  303. You are supporting a project manager and have just finished integrating the various project management plans into a complete document. What process will you perform next?
    A.Develop Project Management Plan
    B.Perform Integrated Change Control
    C.Develop Project Charter
    D.Direct and Manage Project Execution.
    D.Direct and Manage Project Execution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  304. The need for ___________ is one of the major driving forces for communication in a project.
    A.Integration (溶け込み、融合)
    B.Differentiation
    C.Optimization
    D.Integrity(誠実)
    e.None of the Above
    A.Integration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  305. When it comes to changes, the project manager’s attention is best given to:
    A.Tracking and recording all changes.
    B.Preventing unnecessary changes
    C.Informing the sponsor of all changes.
    D.Making changes
    B.Preventing unnecessary changes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  306. All of the following are parts of an effective change management plan, except:
    A.Lessons learned
    B.Meetings
    C.Procedures
    D.Standards for reports
    A.Lessons learned
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  307. A project has just started and it is plagued(~に悩まされる) by changes to the project charter. Who has the primary responsibility to decide if these changes are required and necessary?
    A.The project manager
    B.The project sponsor
    C.The project stakeholders
    D.The project team
    B.The project sponsor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  308. A project management plan should be realistic in order to be used to manage a project. Which of the following is the best method to achieve a realistic project management plan?
    A.The functional manager creates the project management plan based on input from the project manager and project team.
    B.The sponsor creates the project management plan based on input from the project manager.
    C.The project manager creates the project management plan based on input from the project team.
    D.The project manager creates the project management plan based on input from senior management.
    C.The project manager creates the project management plan based on input from the project team.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  309. You are in the middle of executing a major modification to an existing product. Now, you learn that the resources promised at the beginning of the project are no longer available. The best thing to do is:
    A.Show how the resources were originally promised to your project
    B.Explain the impact if the promised resources are not made available.
    C.Cry
    D.Immediately re-plan the project without the resources
    E.Crash or fast-track the project
    B.Explain the impact if the promised resources are not made available.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  310. The project manager has just received a change request from the customer. The request has no affect on the project schedule. Based on the answers below, what should the project manager do first?
    A.Go immediately to the change control board.
    B.Evaluate the change request and its potential impact on the other project constraints.
    C.Contact the project sponsor and ask permission to make the change.
    D.Make the change as soon as possible.
    B.Evaluate the change request and its potential impact on the other project constraints.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  311. You are asked to prepare a budget for completing a project that was started last year and then shelved for 9 months. All of the following would be include in the budget, except:
    A.Variable costs
    B.Sunk costs
    C.Direct costs
    D.Fixed costs
    B.Sunk costs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  312. An output of the Close Project or Close Phase process is the creation of:
    A.A signed project charter.
    B.A signed project management plan.
    C.A completed risk analysis plan.
    D.Project archives.
    D.Project archives.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  313. All of the following would occur during the Close Project or Close Phase process except:
    A.Reducing resource spending
    B.Formal acceptance
    C.Creating lessons learned
    D.Performing cost benefit analysis
    D.Performing cost benefit analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  314. A project manager is trying to convince management to use more formal project management procedures. The project manager decides to start improving the company’s project management by obtaining a project charter. Which of the following best describes why the project charter would be helpful to the project manager?
    A.It lists the names of all the project team members
    B.It describes the project’s history
    C.It gives the project manager authority
    D.It describes the details of what needs to be done on the project
    C.It gives the project manager authority
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  315. You are in the Closing Process Group. All technical work is completed on the project. Which of the following remains to be completed?
    A.Verify Scope
    B.Complete Lessons Learned
    C.Complete the Staffing Management Plan
    D.Plan Risk Responses
    B.Complete Lessons Learned
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  316. In which project management process group is the detailed project budget created?
    A.Before Monitoring and Controlling
    B.Initiating
    C.Executing
    D.Planning
    D.Planning
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  317. Which of the following is not an input to the Initiating Process Group?
    A.Company culture
    B.Company processes
    C.Historical WBS information
    D.Project Scope Statement
    e.All of the Above
    D.Project Scope Statement
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  318. Which project management process group normally takes the most project time and resources?
    A.Executing
    B.Integration
    C.Design
    D.Planning
    A.Executing
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  319. Quality in PMI means...
    The degree to which a set of inherent(本来備わっている) characteristics fulfill requirements
  320. Project Quality Management is...
    processes and the activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
  321. Quality Control processes are...
    • Plan Quality (Planning)
    • Perform Quality Assurance(Executing)
    • Perform Quality Control(Control and Monitor)
  322. Quality vs. Grade
    • Quality:The measurement of meeting the requirements andDeals with the stability or predictability of the product
    • Grade:The level of technical characteristics and Deals with the characteristics of the product
  323. Who is responsible for project quality?
    project manager
  324. Person responsible for quality should be able to
    • Identify quality problems
    • Recommend solutions
    • Implement(実行に移す) solutions
    • Limit further processing, if non-conforming(一致する, 従う)
  325. Quality should be checked before
    an activity or work package is completed
  326. What are some actions required to ensure quality on a project?
    • Review project charter and project scope statement
    • Ask the customer what their definition of quality is
    • Identify the desired levels of performance in the product and components of the product
    • Identify what level you should control the project to
    • Identify and quality standards and processes that are applicable(当てはまる) to the project and determine which to use
    • Set standards to reach the level of desired performance for activities and the project
    • Set metrics to measure quality from the customers and the organizations perspective
    • Decide what you will do to make sure the processes are followed and the standards are met-your quality control system
    • Determine how you will improve the processes on the project-your process improvement plan
    • Test the validity(妥当(性)) of assumptions before they result in problems
    • Make sure team members understand what quality is for their work
    • Collect problems, errors, and complaints and review what can be done to prevent them from reoccurring
    • Have teams “roam(うろつく)” the project looking for quality improvements
    • Inspect work as it is being done, not after
    • Perform quality reviews, quality assurance(確実さ), and quality control
    • Measure performance against standards
    • Hold meetings, issue reports, take measurements, and perform calculations
    • Reassess(~を見直す) the quality standards
    • Request changes, including corrective and preventive actions and defect(欠陥) repairs
    • Feed lessons learned back into the project
  327. Input of Planning Quality are...
    • Scope baseline
    • Schedule baseline
    • Cost performance baseline
    • Risk register
  328. Tools and Techniques of Planning Quality are...
    • Cost/benefit analysis
    • Cost of Quality
    • Benchmarking (comparing a product/service to standards)
  329. Output of Planning Quality are...
    • Quality Management Plan
    • Quality Metrics
    • Process Improvement Plan
  330. Perform Quality Assurance is the process of...
    auditing (監査する) the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
  331. A good quality assurance system will
    • Identify objectives and standards
    • Be multifunctional(多機能の) and prevention-oriented
    • Collect and use data
    • Establish performance measures
    • Include a quality audit(監査する)
  332. Independent evaluation of quality performance to assure that
    • Intended quality will be met
    • Products are safe and fit for use
    • Laws and regulations are followed
    • Data systems are adequate(適正な)
    • Corrective action is taken
    • Improvement opportunities are identified
  333. Perform Quality Control is the process of
    monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess(評価する) performance and recommend necessary changes
  334. Philip Crosby is Quality Theorist who is...
    • Known for concept of cost of poor quality
    • Advocated prevention over inspection and “zero defects”
  335. Zero Defects is...
    • business practice which aims to reduce and minimise the number of defects and errors in a process and to do things right the first time
    • 無欠点
    • 従業員1人ひとりの注意と工夫によって,仕事上の誤りの原因を除去し始めから正しい仕事をすることによって,仕事・原価・納期に対して効果的に仕事を進める
    • The basic concept foundation is to do something right initially, and you shouldn’t have to repeat it
  336. Joseph Juran is Quality Theorist who is...
    • Developed the 80/20 principle: (80% of the problems are due to 20% of the causes)
    • Advocate of top management involvement
    • Defined quality as “fitness of use”
    • Satisfying custmer is all there is
  337. W. Edward Deming is the Quality Theorist who
    • Developed 14 points to Total Quality Management (little by little)
    • Advocated the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle as the basis for quality improvement
  338. Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality are...
    • Cause and Effect Diagrams (aka Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams)
    • Control Charts
    • Flowcharts
    • Histogram
    • Pareto Diagram (Pareto Chart)
    • Run Chart
    • Scatter Diagram
  339. If you have poor quality, you might also have
    • Increased costs
    • Low morale
    • Low customer satisfaction
    • Increased risk
    • Rework
    • Schedule delays
  340. Increases in quality can result in
    • Increased productivity and cost effectiveness
    • Decreased cost risk
  341. Prevention over Inspection is theory by who?
    Crosby
  342. Inspeciton is performed
    • after the fact and it can
    • Cost of inspecting(調査する)
    • Cost of scrap and rework
  343. Prevention objective is to...
    • stops defects from occurring
    • Cost of training
    • Cost of improved processes
    • Cost of improved materials
  344. Fitness of Use is who's theory?
    Juran
  345. Fitnes of Use implies(暗示する)
    • that the needs of the customer and stakeholders are defined and then we attempt to satisfy them
    • Main goal- to satisfy the real need of the customers and stakeholders
  346. Total Quality Management (TQM) is theory by who?
    Deming
  347. Total Quality Management (TQM) is theory that encourages companies and their employees to
    focus on finding ways to continuously improve the quality of their business practices and products
  348. Gold Plating means
    giving customer extra
  349. Marginal(最低限度の) Analysis
    Refers to looking for the point where the benefits/revenue to be received from improving quality = the incremental(増加の) cost to achieve that quality
  350. Kaizen means
    • Continuous improvement takes a proactive stance to development, one that makes improvements throughout a process
    • Culture to seek process improvement
    • Refers to looking for small improvements in quality
  351. Just in Time (JIT)
    • Companies find that holding large amounts of raw materials and inventory(在庫) to be costly and unnecessary
    • Want to have suppliers deliver supplies just when they are needed or just before they are used
    • Objective: decrease inventory to close to zero
  352. Cost Benefit Analysis is...
    The project manager weighs the benefits versus the cost of meeting quality requirements
  353. Cost of Quality (COQ) is a technique to
    helps make sure the project is not spending too much to assure quality
  354. Cost of quality involves
    looking at what the costs of conformance and nonconformance(不適合) to quality will be on the project and creating an appropriate balance.
  355. Cost of Quality includes....
    • Cost of Conformance (適合コスト:先取りして計画するためのコスト)
    • Cost of Non-Conformance(不適合コスト:不良に対応するためのコスト)
  356. Cost of Conformance are such as...
    • Prevention costs(Training, Document processes)
    • Appraisal costs (Testing, Inspections)
    • Quality training
    • Studies
    • Surveys
  357. Cost of Non-Conformance are such as...
    • Internal failure costs (Rework, Scrap)
    • External failure costs (Inventory costs, Warranty costs)
  358. Benchmarking is the technique involves
    involves looking at other projects to get ideas for improvement on the current project and to provide a basis to use in measuring quality performance and to identify best practices.
  359. Design of Experiments (DOE) is a technique
    uses experimentation to statistically determine what variables(変化する[しやすい]もの) will improve quality
  360. Statistical method that allows you to systematically change all of the important factors in a process and see which combination has a lower impact on the project. This method is called
    Design of Experiments (DOE)
  361. Statistical(統計にもとづく) sampling involves...
    • taking a sample of a population of interest for inspection
    • For example, selecting ten engineering drawings at random from a list of seventy five
  362. Cause and Effect Diagrams (aka Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams) shows
    • how factors might be linked to potential problems of effects
    • Potential causes ======= Effect
  363. Control Chart (Ishikawa) is used to...
    • illustrate how a process behaves over time
    • Has upper and lower limits shown on chart
    • Data are collected and analyzed to indicate the quality status of project processes and products
    • Graphically answers the question: Is this process within acceptable limits
  364. Upper and Lower Control Limits on Control Chart (Ishikawa) are the
    • the acceptable range of variation of a process.
    • The acceptable range of measurements between the upper and lower control limits is set by the project manager and stakeholders based on the organizations quality standard.
    • Normally this range is calculated based on +/- sigma or standard deviations(偏差)
  365. Control charts are set up in the Plan Quality process as part of the effort to determine
    what quality will be on the project.
  366. The Control Charts are utilized in Perform Quality Control, where they help determine
    if a process is within acceptable limits
  367. Control Chart can also be used to monitor things like Project Performance figures, such as
    cost and schedule variances.
  368. Mean (Average) on Control Chart (Ishikawa) is
    indicated by a line in the middle of the control chart.
  369. Standard Deviation
    Measurement of variability or diversity that shows how much variation there is from the average (mean).
  370. Low standard deviation indicates
    that the data points tend to be very close to the mean
  371. High standard deviation indicates
    that the data is spread out over a large range of values
  372. A process is out of a state of statistical control if
    • A datum(測量基準点) point falls outside of the upper or lower control limit
    • There are nonrandom data points; these may be within the upper and lower control limits, such as the rule of seven
  373. Rule of Seven
    • It is a “rule of thumb” or heuristic(発見的問題解決).
    • Refers to nonrandom data points grouped together in a series that total seven on one side of the mean
    • Although none of the points are outside of the control limits:They are not random/The process may be out of control
  374. Flowcharts (Ishikawa) show with use of...
    Critical Path
  375. Flow Chart is Used in Perform Quality Control process to determine
    the steps of a failed process and to help determine potential(将来性[潜在力]がある) process improvements
  376. Histogram (Ishikawa) is ...
    • A vertical bar chart showing how often a particular variable(変化する[しやすい]もの) state occurred
    • The height of each column represents the relative frequency of each characteristic
  377. Pareto Diagram (Pareto Chart) (Ishikawa)
    A specific type of Histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence
  378. Pareto’s Law is
    A relatively small number of causes will typically produce the majority of problems/defects. Commonly called the 80/20 principle. 80% of the problems are due to 20% of the causes
  379. Run Chart (Ishikawa) is
    • Similar to a Control Chart, but does not show upper and lower limits
    • Shows the history of occurrence using a line graph in the order of occurrence
    • Provides trend analysis
  380. Scatter Diagram (Ishikawa)
    • Shows the relationship between two variables
    • Allows analysis of possible relationship between changes observed:The closer the two variable plot to a diagonal line, the closer the relationship.
  381. When a product or service completely meets the customer’s requirements:
    A.The cost of quality is low
    B.The customer pays the minimum price
    C.Quality is achieved
    D.The cost of quality is high
    e.None of the Above
    C.Quality is achieved
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  382. Who is ultimately responsible for quality management on the project?
    A.The quality manager
    B.The project manager
    C.The project sponsor
    D.The project team
    e.All of the Above
    B.The project manager
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  383. The point where the benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental(増加の) cost to achieve that quality is:
    A.Quality control analysis
    B.Conformance analysis
    C.Standard quality analysis
    D.Marginal analysis
    e.None of the above
    D.Marginal analysis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  384. Quality is:
    A.The degree to which the project meets requirements
    B.Meeting and exceeding the customer’s expectations
    C.Adding extras to make the customer happy
    D.Conformance to management’s objectives
    e.Some of the Above
    A.The degree to which the project meets requirements
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  385. A control chart helps the project manager:
    A.Focus on stimulating thinking
    B.Determine if the project is taking too long
    C.Focus on the most critical issues to improve project quality
    D.Explore a desired future outcome
    E.Determine if a process is functioning within set limits
    E.Determine if a process is functioning within set limits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  386. Project Human Resource Management is the process
    that organize, manage and lead the project team
  387. Project Human Resourse Management processes are...
    • Develop Human Resource Plan(Planning)
    • Acquire Project Team(Executing)
    • Develop Project Team(Executing)
    • Manage Project Team(Executing)
  388. Develop Human Resourses are the process of...
    identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities and required skills, reporting relationships and creating a staffing management plan
  389. Acquire Project Team is the process of...
    confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments
  390. Develop Project Team is process of...
    improving the competencies(能力), team interaction and the overall team environment to enhance project performance
  391. Manage Project Team is process of...
    tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance
  392. Input of Develop Human Resource Plan are...
    • Organizational process assets
    • Enterprise environment factors
    • Activity resource requirements
  393. Tools and Technique of Develop Human Resourse Plan are...
    • Organizational charts and position descriptions
    • Networking
    • Organizational theory
  394. Output of Develop Human Resourse Plan is...
    Human Resourse Plan
  395. Enterprise Environmental Factors on Project Human Resource ManagementHuman Resource Planning are...
    • Organizational
    • Technical
    • Interpersonal (個人間の[に生じる])
    • Logistical (〔複雑な〕事業計画[実施]の)
    • Political
    • Constraints(Organizational Structure, Collective Bargaining(団体交渉), Economic Conditions)
  396. Three Organizational Structures on Project Huamn Resource management are...
    • Functional Organizations
    • Matrix Organizations
    • Projectized Organizations
  397. Functional Organizations is...
    Staff grouped specialty, such as production, marketing, accounting, etc.
  398. Martix Organization is...
    • A blend of functional and projectized characteristics.
    • Project Manager role more coordinator or expediter
  399. Projectized Organizations is...
    Staff grouped by projects
  400. Martix organization is divided into three parts, they are...
    • Weak Matrix (more functional)
    • Balanced Matrix
    • Strong Matrix (more projectize)
  401. Weak Matrix Organization, PM has the authority to...
    • Project Manager’s Authority:Limited
    • Resource Availability:Limited
    • Who controls the project budget:Functional Manager
    • Project Manager's Role:Part-time
    • Project Management Administrative Staff:Part-time
  402. Balance Matrix Organization, PM has the authority to...
    • Project Manager’s Authority:Low to moderate
    • Resource Availability:Low to moderate
    • Who controls the project budget:mixed
    • Project Manager's Role:Full-time
    • Project Management Administrative Staff:Part-time
  403. Strong Matix Organization, PM has the authority to...
    • Project Manager’s Authority:Moderate to High
    • Resource Availability:Moderate to High
    • Who controls the project budget:PM
    • Project Manager's Role:Full-time
    • Project Management Administrative Staff:Full-time
  404. Advantage and disadvantage of Functional Organizations are...
    • Advantages: Each employee has one clear superior. Resources are pooled
    • Disadvantages: More silo oriented. Each dept will do its project work independent of other departments
  405. Advantage and disadvantage of Matrix Organization are...
    • Advantages: Each employee has one clear superior. Resources are pooled
    • Disadvantages: More silo oriented. Each dept will do its project work independent of other departments
  406. Advantage and disadvantage of Projectized Organizations are...
    • Advantages: More focus on project
    • Disadvantages: More costly, resources not pooled
  407. Input of Acquire Project Team are...
    • Project Management Plan
    • Enterprise environment factors
    • Organizational process assets
  408. Tools and Techniques of Acqure Project Team are...
    • Pre-assignment
    • Negotiation
    • Acquisition
    • Virtual Teams
  409. Output of Acquire Project Team are...
    • Project staff assignments
    • Resource calendars
    • Project management plan updates
  410. Input of Develop Project Team are...
    • Project staff assignments
    • Project management plan
    • Resource calendars
  411. Tools and Techniques of Dvelop Project Team are...
    • Interpersonal skills
    • Training
    • Team-building activities
    • Ground rules
    • Co-location
    • Recognition and rewards
  412. Output of Develop Project Team are...
    • Team performance assessments
    • Enterprise environmental factor updates
  413. Input of Manage Project Team are...
    • Project staff assignments
    • Project management plan
    • Team performance assessments
    • Performance reports
    • Organizational process assets
  414. Tools and Techniques of Manage Project Team are...
    • Observation and conversation
    • Project performance appraisals(評価)
    • Conflict management
    • Issue log
    • Interpersonal skills
  415. Output of Manage Project Team are...
    • Enterprise environmental factors updates
    • Organizational process assets updates
    • Change requests
    • Project management plan updates
  416. Documenting Project Authority, Project Manager’s authority should be published to delineate their role regarding
    • Primary point of contact for project communication
    • Resolving conflicts
    • Influence across functional and organizational levels
    • Major management and technical decision-making
    • Collaborating in obtaining resources
    • Control over allocation(配分) and expenditure(出費) of funds
    • Selection of subcontractors
  417. Staff Management Plan should consider
    • Staff acquisition
    • Timing of resource needs (resource histogram)
    • Process for releasing resources
    • Training
    • Recognition and Rewards
    • Compliance(適合性)
    • Safety
  418. 4 things that actually needs to be included in Staff Management Plan are...
    • Resource calendar
    • Staff release plan
    • Staff training needs
    • Recognition and rewards
  419. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is used to...
    • illustrate the connections between work packages/activities and project team members
    • May be at a high level showing group or unit responsibility
    • May be at an individual/activity level
  420. Most popular type of Responsibility Assignment Matrix is...
    RACI Format/Chart: Responsible, Accountable(説明する義務がある), Consult, Inform
  421. Elements of a RAM describes who...
    • Has general management responsibility
    • Has operations management responsibility
    • Has specialized responsibility
    • Should be consulted (Participant)
    • May be consulted (Input Required)
    • Must be notified (Review Required)
    • Must approve (Approval)
  422. Pre-Assignment on Acquire Project Team Tools and Techniques means...
    When project team members are selected in advance, they are considered pre-assigned
  423. Negotiation on Acquire Project Team Tools and Techniques means...
    When staff assignments are negotiated, there may be discussions as to who will be on the project to provide competent staff at the required time
  424. Acquisition on Acquire Project Team Tools and Techniques means...
    When there is a need to acquire competency from outside the company/organization
  425. Virtual teams on Acquire Project Team Tools and Techniques means...
    • Increase communications planning
    • Extra effort in articulating expectations
    • More difficult conflict resolution
    • Extra effort in gaining consensus and decision
  426. While Developing Project Team, PM's role is to...
    • Integrator
    • Communicator
    • Team Leader
    • Decision Maker
    • Climate Creator/Builder
  427. An Effective Project Manager should
    • Understands Own Strengths and Weaknesses
    • Manages Time Well
    • Effectively Communicates
    • Manages the Work
    • Demonstrates Strong People Skills
  428. Types of power (influence) on project human resources are...
    • Formal
    • Reward
    • Penalty/Coercive
    • Referent
    • Expert
  429. Formal type of power on human resource management is
    Power based on your position
  430. Reward type of power on human resource management is
    This power stems from giving rewards
  431. Penalty/Coercive type of power on human resource management is
    • If this isn’t done, I have the power to remove you from the project
    • worst case of types of power
  432. Referent type of power on human resource management is
    Power from who you know, from people liking you, from charisma and fame (who you are)
  433. Expert type of power on human resource management is
    • Power from being technical expert or project expert
    • Best type of power
    • Respect
  434. The five stages of team development are...
    • Forming:The team meets, is given roles and responsibilities
    • Storming:Team addresses project work, technical issues, and project management work.Team needs to learn to work together.
    • Norming:Team begins to work together and adjusts work habits to support team.
    • Performing:Teams are well organized, work interdependently(相互依存の) and work through issues smoothly
    • Adjourning(移動する):Team completes work and moves to other projects
  435. Forming stage on Team Development does what?
    The team meets, is given roles and responsibilities
  436. Storming stage on Team Development does what?
    Team addresses project work, technical issues, and project management work.Team needs to learn to work together.
  437. Performing stage on Team Development does what?
    Teams are well organized, work interdependently(相互依存の) and work through issues smoothly
  438. Adjourning(移動する) stage on Team Development does what?
    Team completes work and moves to other projects
  439. Virtual Teams increases...
    • Increases communication needs
    • Increases complexity of conflict resolution
    • Increases complexity of reward systems
  440. Barriers to Project Team Building
    • Differing outlooks, priorities, and interests
    • Project objectives/outcomes not clear
    • Dynamic project environments
    • Lack of team definition and structure
    • Role conflicts
    • Credibility(信頼性) of project leader
    • Lack of team member commitment
    • Communication problems
    • Lack of senior management support
  441. On Manage Project Team, PM should...
    • Track team member performance
    • Provide feedback
    • Resolve issues
    • Coordinate changes to enhance project performance
  442. Sources of Conflict on Project Human Resource managemes are...
    • Priority of work issues
    • Schedule issues
    • Obtaining people resource issues
    • Technical and performance issues
    • Interpersonal relationship issues
    • Cost and budget issues
    • Administrative procedures
  443. 6 Conflict Resolution Techniques on Project Human Resource Management are...
    • Withdrawing/Avoiding
    • Smoothing/Accommodating
    • Forcing
    • Compromising
    • Collaborating
    • Confronting/Problem Solving
  444. Withdrawing/Avoiding on 6 Conflict Resolution Techuniques means...
    • Retreating from an actual or potential situationRun away!
    • Run away! Run away!
  445. Smoothing/Accommodating(協調的な、融通の利く) on 6 Conflict Resolution Techuniques means...
    Identify areas of agreement versus areas of disagreement
  446. Forcing on 6 Conflict Resolution Techuniques means...
    • Pushing one’s view at the expense of others; a win/lose situation
    • worst technique to be used in conflic reolution
  447. Compromising: (Lose/Lose) on 6 Conflict Resolution Techuniques means...
    • Develop a solution to bring some degree of satisfaction to all parties.
    • Each party gives up something. (Second best approach)
  448. Collaborating on 6 Conflict Resolution Techuniques means...
    The people involved try to incorporate multiple viewpoints and insights from differing perspectives; leads to consensus and commitment
  449. Confronting/Problem Solving on 6 Conflict Resolution Techniques means...
    • Address the issue as something to be solved by examining alternatives; requires give and take attitude and open dialogue(会話)
    • Win/Win
    • Best technique to use on conflict resolution
  450. Motivation is the ability to...
    get an individual or group to work towards achieving an organization’s objectives while accomplishing personal and group objectives at the same time
  451. Theory of Needs on Motivational Theories is...
    • Maslow
    • Self actualization(自己実現), Self esteem(自己尊重), social, physiological
  452. Theory X on Motivational Theories is...
    • MacGregor
    • The average worker dislikes work and avoids work when possible.
    • The average worker avoids increased responsibility and seeks to be directed.
    • Management Style: Authoritarian(独裁主義者)
  453. Theory Y on Motivational Theories is...
    • MacGregor
    • The average worker wants to be active and finds the physical and mental effort on the job satisfying
    • Management Style: Participatory(一般参加型の)
  454. Theory Z on Motivational Theories is...
    • Ouchi
    • The secret to Japanese success and quality in not technology, but a special way of handling people:Trust, recognize ever changing relationships among people, and Intimacy(親密さ)
  455. Hygiene Theory on Motivational Theories is...
    • Herzberg
    • Poor hygiene(衛生状態) destroys motivation; improving hygiene will not motivate.
    • Having an opportunity to succeed will increase motivation
  456. Life Cycle Theory on Motivational Theories is...
    • Hersey and Blanchard
    • Leadership style must change with the maturity of individual employees
  457. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
    • Is a Triangle form of motivation theories
    • From Top to Bottom, they are:Self Actualization(自己実現), Self Esteem(自己尊重), Social, Security, Physiological(生理的な)
  458. Hygiene(衛生状態) Factors includes...
    • Working conditions
    • Salary
    • Relationships at work
    • Security
    • Status
  459. Issues Facing Project Manager on Project Human Resource Management are...
    • Fringe Benefits(付加給付税)(ie:vacation)
    • Perks(ie:promotion, bonus)
    • Arbitration(調停)
    • Career Planning
    • Training
    • Productivity Incentives
    • Team Camaraderie(仲間意識)
  460. The halo effect refers to the tendency to:
    A.Promote people into project management because the are good in their technical field
    B.A general term referring to promoting from within
    C.Promote people into project management because they have been trained in project management
    D.Hire the best person for the position
    A.Promote people into project management because the are good in their technical field
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  461. The project manager has created her Human Resource Plan and is preparing to start her project. Resumes are being reviewed and people are being interviewed. A technical lead is being offered a position as the technical architect. What process is the project manager involved?
    A.Hiring and Interviewing
    B.Develop Human Resources Plan
    C.Acquire Project Team
    D.Develop Project Team
    E.Estimate Activity Resources
    C.Acquire Project Team
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  462. What conflict resolution technique is a project manager using when he says, “I cannot deal with this problem right now!”
    A.Problem solving
    B.Compromising
    C.Withdrawal
    D.Smoothing
    E.Forcing
    C.Withdrawal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  463. A project manager needs to motivate her team and reviews Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to use as her basis for her motivational strategy. Which of the following are the components of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
    A.Physiological, achievement, esteem, safety, and self-actualization
    B.Physiological, achievement, esteem, psychological, safety, and self-actualization
    C.Physiological, belonging, esteem, psychological, safety, and self-actualization
    D.Physiological, belonging, esteem, safety, and self-actualization
    D.Physiological, belonging, esteem, safety, and self-actualization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  464. The project manager uses a variety of power types on their systems upgrade project. Which of the following is an example of Expert power?
    A.The project manager announces that those who do not complete their tasks in a timely manner will be ineligible for a bonus
    B.The project manager’s college degree and their prior experience are in systems engineering
    C.The project manager instructs the team leaders to prepare status reports
    D.The project manager takes the most productive team members to lunch at an expensive restaurant
    B.The project manager’s college degree and their prior experience are in systems engineering
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  465. Project Communication Management process groups are...
    • Identify Stakeholders (Initiating)
    • Plan communication(Planning)
    • Distribute Information (Executing)
    • Manage Stakeholder Expectations (Executing)
    • Report Performance (Monitor And Control)
  466. Effective project communication is needed to ensure that we get the Right information
    • To the right people
    • At the right time
    • Using the right media
    • In a cost effective manner
  467. The Communications Management Plan answers...
    • Who?
    • What?
    • When?
    • How?
  468. Communication Management Plan determine the information and communication needs in a communications matrix
    • Who needs what information
    • When will they need it
    • How do they need the information
    • What technology will be used to distribute info
  469. The Communications Management Plan should include
    • The method/methods used to gather, store & retrieve information
    • Reporting Relationships
    • Distribution Schedules
    • Reporting Content
  470. A large, one-year Bio-tech project is about halfway complete when you take the place of the prior project manager. The project involves three different contracts and a team of 30 people. You would like to see the project’s communication requirements and know what technology is being used to aid in project communications. Where will you find this information?
    1)The Project Management Plan
    2)The information distribution plan
    3)The project bar chart
    4)The Communications Management Plan
    4)The Communications Management Plan
  471. Formula of Communication Channel is...
    • n*(n-1)/2
    • n is the number of people involved including project manager
  472. Communications is the key to the success of a project. As the project manager, you have three stakeholders with whom you need to communicate. As such, you have six channels of communication. A new stakeholder has been added that you also need to communicate with. How many communications channels do you now have?
    1)7
    2)10
    3)12
    4)16
    2)10
  473. Responsibility of the Project Manager on Distribute Information on Communication Management are...
    • Know what kind of message to send
    • Generate the message
    • Know how to translate the message
    • Build consensus and confidence, NOT compromise(歩み寄り、妥協)
    • Proactively(積極的に) address issues with customers and stakeholders
    • Progress/status reports must be accurate and timely
    • Problems should be stated concisely, with precision and should include recommended solutions
  474. 3 Communication Methods on Communication Management are...
    • Interactive(best)
    • Push communication
    • Pull
  475. What is example of Interactive Communicatoin?
    • Exchange of information and ideas
    • Meetings, phone calls, video conferences
  476. What is example of push communication?
    • Send info to recipients
    • Letter, e-mail
  477. What is example of pull communication?
    • Put info somewhere to “pull”
    • Intranet
  478. Communication factor includes...
    • Non-Verbal- (55%)
    • Para-lingual- Pitch/Tone of voice
    • Active Listening- Feedback
  479. What are 4 Communication types
    • Formal Written
    • Formal Verbal
    • Informal Written
    • Informal Verbal
  480. Communications under a contract should tend toward
    A.Formal Verbal Communication
    B.Formal Written Communication
    C.Informal Written Communication
    D.Informal Verbal Communication
    B.Formal Written Communication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  481. Communications Barriers/Blockers includes...
    • Noise
    • Distance
    • Limit free-flowing ideas (Negative statements)
    • Hostility
    • Language
    • Culture
  482. Report Performance means
    • Collecting information
    • Disseminating(散布する) information
    • Communicating utilization(役立たせる) of resources
    • Reporting on project achievements
  483. Tools and Techniques of Reporting Performances are...
    • Presentation Tools
    • Information Gathering Status
    • Review Meetings
    • Progress Reporting Systems
    • Cost Reporting Systems
  484. Where are we in the project schedule?
    What is the percentage of completion?
    What is the estimated time to complete the project?
    Why are we ahead or behind schedule?
    This is example of...
    Time Reporting on communication management report performance
  485. What are the actual capital expenditures to date?
    What are the committed expenditures?
    What are the estimated expenditures to complete the project?
    What are the total projected costs for the project?
    How much are we over or under expended and why?
    This is example of...
    Cost Reporting Examples on communication management report performance
  486. Status Meeting VS Progress Meeting
    • Status Meeting: At this point of time where am I? What am I doing?
    • Progress meeting: subset of status. What I have achieved.
  487. Issue Log is...
    everytime the issue is there, who's responsible for it
  488. Proactive alignment of expectations and the project management plan include...
    • Understand known expectations
    • Recognize that expectations are dynamic
    • Obtain buy-in
  489. Project Risk Management are...
    • A systematic process
    • Identify, analyze, and respond to project risk
    • Maximize the results of positive events
    • Minimize the consequences of adverse events
  490. Why Use Risk Management?
    • Pro-actively address project risk events
    • Increase risk awareness among stakeholders
    • Minimize variance in plan
    • Projects are unique by definition
    • Risks do and will affect your project
    • The significance of these risks will directly affect the plan
    • It is why Project Management exists
  491. Risk Assessment Steps are...
    • Evaluate the impact of the change
    • Determine options
    • Develop recommendation
    • Go to management and the customer with the change, options and recommendations
  492. The customer requests a change to the project that would increase the project risk. Which of the following should you do before all the others?
    A. Analyze the impact of the change
    B. Change the risk plan
    C. Develop an estimate of the cost impact and the benefits
    D. Talk to the customer about the impact of the change
    A. Analyze the impact of the change
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  493. Risk Categories
    • Unpredictable External
    • Predictable External
    • Non-technical Internal
    • Technical (Internal or External)
    • Legal (Internal or External)
    • Triggers (Symptoms/Warning signs)
  494. Risk Breakdown Structure is...
    Lists the categories and the sub-categories with which risks may arise
  495. Different RBS’s will be appropriate for
    different projects and different types of organizations.
  496. Risk events have a three-part anatomy(構造). They are...
    • The future event or situation that poses the risk
    • The consequence of that event or situation
    • The source of the risk
  497. Risk events DO NOT contain
    • Solutions
    • Risk reduction ideas
  498. Tools and Techniques of Risk Identification are...
    • Determine risks
    • Document their characteristics and risk category
    • Gather information
    • Brainstorming
    • Delphi Technique I
    • nterviewing
    • Root Cause
    • Identified
    • SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats)
    • Checklists & Assumption Analysis
    • Diagram techniques:Cause & Effect diagrams, Flow charts, Influence diagrams
  499. Primary Output of Risk Output are...
    • Risk Register
    • List of identified risks
    • List of potential responses
  500. Processes of Project Risk Managements are...
    • Plan Risk Management(Planning)
    • Identify Risks(Planning)
    • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis(Planning)
    • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis(Planning)
    • Plan Risk Responses(Planning)
    • Monitor and Control Risk (Monitor and control)
  501. Qualitative Risk Analysis are...
    • Assess(査定) the impact and likelihood of identified risks in the risk register
    • Prioritize risks
    • Determine the importance of risks
    • Determine risks requiring additional analysis
  502. Formula for Risk Priority is...
    Probability assess*Impact assess
  503. Steps to prioritize risks are...
    • Rank all risks by Risk Priority
    • Using the project team’s collective judgment, adjust the Risk Priority
    • Establish a Risk Ranking - identify at least the top ten
  504. Risk Probability is...
    • For each identified risk, asses the probability of its occurrence
    • High to Low
  505. Risk Impact is...
    • For each identified risk, asses the impact of the consequences, considering cost, schedule and performance
    • High to Low
  506. Quantitative Risk Analysis are to...
    • Analyze numerically(数量的に) the probability of each risk
    • Determine the consequence(結果) on project objectives
    • Determine the extent(範囲、程度) of overall project risk
  507. Sensitivity Analysis on Quantitative tools on Risk Management are...
    • Simplest form of risk analysis
    • Change a single variable and determine effect on the project plan
    • Define a possible range of outcomes
    • Focus on variables with high impact
  508. Modeling Simulation on Quantitative Tools on Risk Management are...
    • Uses a modeling technique such as the Monte Carlo method
    • Cost Risk Analysis may use WBS as the model
    • Schedule Risk Analysis may use Network Diagram as the model
  509. Risk Response Planning is to
    • Develop options
    • Determine actions
    • Enhance(を高める) opportunities
    • Reduce threats
    • Identify responsibilities
    • Determine appropriate response based on severity of risk
  510. Name 4 Negative Events on Contingency Risk Response Strategies
    • Acceptance:受容。accept the risk
    • Avoidance:回避。what can I do to eliminate risk
    • Transference:移転。trabser ut ti sineibe ekse
    • Mitigation:軽減。reduce probability of happening
  511. Name 4 Positive Events on Contingency Risk Response Strategies
    • Acceptance
    • Exploit:利用。by adding we'll get more positive effect (gold plating)
    • Share:共有
    • Enhance:強化。opostite of mitigate. how to higer probability of good thing happening
  512. Contingency Risk Response Planning is...
    • The risk cannot be reduced (it is accepted)
    • Contingency(不慮の出来事) Plans are proactive planning for potential risk events
    • Contingency Allowance includes time, money, or resources for known risks
  513. Contingency plans are
    • A response to a risk event that will be implemented(備品) only if the risk event occurs
    • Included in the WBS
    • Often shown on milestone charts
  514. Workarounds are...
    Unplanned responses to risks that were previously unidentified or accepted
  515. Risk Monitoring & Control determine if...
    • Risk responses have been implemented as planned
    • Risk responses are effective
    • Project assumptions are still valid
    • Risk exposure(身をさらす[さらされる]こと) has changed
    • Risk trigger has occurred
    • Policies and procedures have been followed
    • New risks have occurred that were previously not defined
  516. An Iterative(繰り返しの多い) Process on risk management are...
    • Risk Assessment – Identify, Analyze, prioritize
    • Risk Response –Plan, execute, evaluate, document
  517. At Monitoring and Controlling of Risk Management...
    • Set response strategies in motion at the first trigger
    • Communicate current and perceived risks as part of the normal project update
    • Document events, actions and results
    • Create lessons learned
    • Evaluate results
    • Refine the risk management plan
  518. A project team is creating a project management plan when management asks them to identify project risks and provide some form of qualitative output as soon as possible. What should the project team provide?
    A. A prioritized list of project risks
    B. A status of current active activities
    C. Contingency reserves
    D. Probability of achieving the time and cost objectives
    • A. A prioritized list of project risks
    • This is an output of “Perform Qualitative Risk”
  519. Output of Risk Monitoring and Controlling are...
    • Requested Changes
    • Recommended Corrective Changes
    • Updated on 1)Risk Register (Risks can be “retired")2)Project Management Plan
  520. Project Procurement Management includes...
    • 4 procurement processes to purchase or acquire the products, services, or results needed from outside the project team to perform project work
    • contract management and change control processes required to develop and administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members
  521. Name four processess of Project Procurement Management
    • Plan Procurements(Planning)
    • Conduct procurements(Executing)
    • Administer Procurements(Control and Monitor)
    • Close Procurements(Closing)
  522. Plan Procurements is process of
    documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers
  523. Conduct Procurements is process of
    obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller and awarding a contract
  524. Administer Procuremnt is the process of
    managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed
  525. Close Procurements is the process of...
    completing each project procurement
  526. Input of Planning Procurement are...
    • Scope Baseline(Scope Statement,WBS and WBS Dictionary)
    • Teaming Agreements(Contractual agreements between two or more parties,The agreement defines roles and responsibilities)
    • Risk Register(List of identified risks, risk owners and risk responses)
    • Project Schedule
    • Resource Requirements(Items such as people, equipment and materials)
    • Cost Performance Baseline(Planned budget over time)
    • Cost Estimates(Used to evaluate the reasonableness of bids and proposals)
  527. Tools and Techniques of Planning Procurement are...
    • Make or Buy Analysis(An analysis to determine if work can best be accomplished by the project team or purchased from outside sources )
    • Determine what contract types to use
    • Use of expert judgment(Use of expert technical experience to assess inputs to and outputs from suppliers and processes/Use of expert procurement experience )
  528. What is Make or Buy Analysys?
    An analysis to determine if work can best be accomplished by the project team or purchased from outside sources
  529. Reasons to “Make” on Planning Procurement
    • Control
    • Cost
    • Integration issues with operations
    • Idle existing capacity
    • Proprietary(専売特許の) design
    • Poor supplier(供給[補充]者) experiences
    • Stabilize work force
  530. Reasons to “Buy”
    • Cost
    • Supplier expertise
    • Small volume costs too high
    • Limited capacity/time
    • Augment(…を増す) labor force
    • Maintain multiple sources/reduce risk
    • Indirect control is acceptable
  531. Buyer in Procurement Management means...
    • The organization seeking to acquire goods or services from an external entity (the seller).
    • The buyer becomes the customer and key stakeholder
  532. Seller in Procurement Management means...
    • The subcontractor, vendor, or supplier who will provide the goods and services to the buyer.
    • The seller’s work is managed as a project
  533. Contract in Procurement Management means...
    The binding agreement between the buyer and the seller
  534. 5 Elements of legally binding Contract are...
    • An Offer (Proposition(提案) to exchange something for something)
    • Acceptance (A buyer willing to accept something from a seller)
    • Consideration (The exchange of something of value, not necessarily money)
    • Legal Capacity (Separate legal parties, competent, of legal age and authorized)
    • Legal Purpose (Cannot have a contract that violates public law)
  535. Factors to Consider on Use of Contract Types
    • Overall degree of cost and schedule risk
    • Type/complexity of requirement
    • Extent of price competition
    • Cost/price analysis
    • Urgency of requirement/Performance period
    • Frequency of expected changes
    • Industry standards of types of contracts used
    • Well defined Statement of Work
  536. Other Procurement Decisions
    • Procure all goods/services from a single source
    • Procure all goods/services from multiple sources
    • Procure only a small portion of goods/services
    • Procure none of the goods/services
  537. Sole Source on Non-Competitive Contracts means...
    • Using a seller that has no other competition
    • Typically has a patent or some other type of intellectual property
    • 他にやれる人がいないから選ぶ
  538. Single Source on Non-Competitive contracts means...
    • CHOOSING a single seller that you prefer to work with
    • ここが良いからと自分の意思で選ぶこと
  539. 3 Contract Types are...
    • Fixed- price contract
    • Time and Material contract
    • Cost-reimbursable contract
  540. Allocation(割り当て) of Risk Through Contract Type
    Fixed Price contracts(Risk-Seller)<------>Cost Reimbursable contracts(Risk-Buyer)
  541. Fixed- price contracts is
    • Sets a defined total price for defined product or services to be provided. May incorporate financial incentives for achieving selected project objectives, such as schedule, technical performance.
    • Risk to seller to perform
    • Buyer needs to provide clear and specific specifications
  542. Cost-reimbursable contracts
    • Used when scope of work cannot be precisely defined at the start or when there are high risks in performing to the contract
    • Contract involves payment (cost reimbursement) to seller for legitimate(正当な) actual costs, plus a fee.
    • May incorporate financial incentives for achieving selected project objectives, such as schedule, technical performance.
    • Risk to buyer.
  543. Time and Material contracts is
    • Hybrid of Fixed and Cost type contracts.
    • Fixed/Specific Rates are set (i.e., specific labor rates, material rates, machine hour rates, etc.)
    • Reimburse for costs plus fee (included in rate)
    • Often “open ended” (no specific end date)
    • Often used for staff augmentation(増加) and outside support.
    • Medium Risk to buyer; Buyer needs to closely monitor costs
    • Recommend use of “not-to-exceed” clause in contract
  544. Firm-Fixed Price (FFP/Lump Sum) (Contract Type of Procurement)
    • Buyer pays a fixed price.
    • Seller typically does NOT provide cost information, unless specified as criteria as performance incentive
    • Buyer must be sure the product or service precisely meet requirements and are precisely specified
    • Typically used for commercial and standard items and services
    • Purchase Order (PO)- Simplest type of Fixed Price Contract
  545. Fixed-Price Incentive Fee (FPIF)(Contract Type of Procurement)
    • Incentive Fee can be adjusted for the seller, based on seller meeting specified performance criteria, such as:Completing the work quicker/Completing the work cheaper/Technical performance
    • At the end of the contract, the final price is determined based on actual performance compared to specified performance criteria.
    • A ceiling price is set and all costs above the ceiling price are the responsibility of the SELLER, who is obligated to complete the work
  546. Firm-Price Economic Price Adjustment (FP-EPA)(Contract Type of Procurement)
    • A fixed price contract
    • Used when the performance period spans a considerable period of time, typically years
    • Includes a provision allowing for a pre-defined final adjustments, due to:Inflation (typically use a financial index)/Commodity fluctuation costs (i.e., gold, platinum, etc)
  547. Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF)(Cost Reimbursable Contract Type of Procurement)
    • The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs
    • The Fixed Fee, calculated as a percentage of the initial estimated project costs, does not change, unless scope changes.
    • Fee is paid only for completed work
    • Fee does not change due to seller performance
  548. Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)(Cost Reimbursable Contract Type of Procurement)
    • The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs
    • The seller receives a predetermined incentive fee based on achieving stated performance objectives
    • If the final costs are less than or greater than the estimated costs, then BOTH, the seller and buyer share in the cost difference, based on the stated cost sharing formula
  549. Cost Plus Award Fee (CPAF)(Cost Reimbursable Contract Type of Procurement)
    • The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs
    • The fee is awarded based on a broad and “subjective” performance criteria, defined in the contract.
    • Buyer determines if performance fee criteria has been met
  550. Cost Plus Percentage of Cost (CPPC) (Cost Reimbursable Contract Type of Procurement)
    • The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs
    • No incentive to seller to control costs. As such, buyer should closely review seller costs
    • Not allowed in Government contracting
  551. The contract type that represents the highest risk to the seller is
    :1)Fixed price plus incentive
    2)Cost reimbursable
    3)Fixed price
    4)Cost reimbursable plus incentive
    5)Time and material
    3)Fixed price
  552. Output of Plan Procurement is...
    Procurement Management Plan(The Procurement Management Plan describes how the procurement process will be managed)
  553. Procurement Management Plan includes guidance for...
    • The types of contracts to be use
    • What standardized procurement documents will be used
    • If independent estimates will be used for analysis and evaluation criteria
    • Metrics that will be used to manage contracts and evaluate sellers
    • Assumptions
  554. Procurement Plan includes...
    • Procurement Statement of Work
    • Procurement Documents
  555. PROCUREMENT Statements of Work (SOW) describes...
    • the product or services to be supplied by the supplier
    • PROCUREMENT SOW's are a “subset” of Project SOW.
    • Developed from the project scope baseline
  556. Make or buy analysis is a tool used in which process?
    1)Plan Procurements
    2)Conduct Procurements
    3)Administer Procurements
    4)Close Procurements
    1)Plan Procurements
  557. Procurement Documents is used to...
    solicit(求める) proposals from sellers
  558. Request for Bid or Quotation- (RFQ- Request For Quote) on Procumrenet Document is...
    • Generally used when the seller selection decision will be based primarily on price.
    • Typically used when buying commercial or standard items (COTS: Commercial Off the Shelf)
  559. Request For Proposal- (RFP) on Procurement Document is...
    Generally used when other considerations, such as technical capability or technical approach are paramount(最も重要な)
  560. Procurement Documents includes...
    • Procurement SOWs
    • Product background / historical information
    • Correspondence procedures
    • Specific guidelines to prepare proposal
    • Proposal evaluation criteria. Include:Price or cost criteria/Seller’s technical ability, management approach, schedule, cost and supplier financial capacity
  561. Conduct Procurements's process is to...
    • 1. Obtaining seller responses,
    • 2. Selecting a seller
    • 3. Awarding a contract
  562. Tools and Techniques of Conduct Procuremen are...
    • Bidder conferences
    • Proposal Evaluation Techniques
    • Independent Estimates
    • Negotiations
  563. Bidder conferences on Conduct Procurement means...
    • Meetings between buyer and prospective seller
    • Used to ensure clear understanding of the procurement
    • Be sure all potential sellers are treated the same
  564. Proposal Evaluation Techniques on Conduct Procurement means...
    Formal evaluation process based on set criteria, such as cost, financial stability, technical capability, schedule, etc.
  565. Independent Estimates on Conduct Procurement means...
    Independent estimate of the reasonableness of costs
  566. Letter of Contract / Letter of Intent (Conduct Procurement)
    • A written preliminary(前置きの) contract authorizing the seller to begin work immediately
    • Used when final contract signatures may take time, delaying supplier to buying long lead material and hire key personnel to meet contract requirements
  567. Definitive Contract (Conduct Procurement)
    A contract entered into following normal contracting procedures
  568. Administer Procurements is the process of...
    managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as needed
  569. Function of Contract Administration
    • The Authority to Change and Manage Contracts
    • Review Quality Control
    • Subcontract(下請負) Management
    • Contract Breach(違反)
    • Disputes(論争する)
    • Scheduled Payments
    • Contract Termination
  570. Contract Administration Outputs are...
    • Procurement Documentation
    • Change Requests
    • Recommended Corrective Actions
    • Updates to:Payment schedules/Seller performance evaluations
  571. Close Procurements is the process of
    completing each project procurement
  572. Contract Closure process consists of...
    • Verifying all work is complete and all deliverables are accepted
    • Finalizing and settling open claims
    • Making final payments
    • Buyer provides seller with formal notice that the contract has been completed, except warranties, which will continue as specified in warranty
    • Post-Contract Evaluation of Seller
    • Document procurement lessons learned
    • Update contract database
  573. Administrative Closure is...
    • The Close Project (Close Phase)
    • PROCESS is the closing of the project/phase
  574. Procurement Closure
    The closing of a procurement
  575. Which of the following represents the right sequence of procurement processes?

    1)Analyze Procurements, Plan Procurements, Conduct Procurements, Close Procurements
    2)Determine Mark or Buy, Administer Procurements, Conduct procurements, Close Procurements
    3)Plan Purchases, Administer Procurements, Conduct Procurements, Close Procurements
    4)Plan Procurements, Conduct Procurements, Administer Procurements, Close Procurements
    4)Plan Procurements, Conduct Procurements, Administer Procurements, Close Procurements
  576. The value of work performed, expressed in terms of the approved budget assigned to that work for a schedule activity or for a WBS component is called
    Earned Value
  577. Earned Value is sometimes called
    Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)
  578. Earned Value provides
    objective, quantifiable measurement of work that has been accomplished
  579. Planned Value (PV) is
    • The authorized budget for an activity or a component of the budget.
    • The total of all the planned values = project budget
    • The total project budget is the Budget at Completion (BAC)
  580. Earned Value (EV) is
    • Is the work accomplished, expressed in terms of the budget assigned to the work or activity
    • When the project is completed, all work is completed and the EV = Budget
  581. Actual Cost (AC) is
    The cost actually incurred and recorded
  582. Schedule Variance (SV)is
    • The difference between what you have accomplished (earned) and what is planned
    • SV=EV-PV
  583. Cost Variance (CV)is
    • The difference between what you have accomplished (earned) and the actual costs
    • CV=EV-AC
  584. Schedule Performance Index (SPI) is
    • A measure of schedule progress achieved compared to planned progress
    • If SPI < 1, then less work was completed versus planned
    • SPI=EV/PV
  585. Cost Performance Index (CPI) is
    • A measure of the work completed compared to actual cost
    • If CPI < 1, then less work was completed versus planned and indicates a cost overrunCPI=EV/AC
  586. Estimate at Complete (EAC) on schedule is
    • Estimating formula that assumes the performance to date will continue throughout the project.
    • EAC=BAC/CPI
  587. Estimate at Complete (EAC) on cost is
    • The estimated completion cost of the project = the actual costs, to date, plus an updated estimate of the remaining costs
    • EAC=AC+ETC
  588. The estimated worth of Activity A is $200 and is 100% complete. Activity B is worth $75 and is 90% complete. Actual costs to date are $120. Activity C is worth $200 and is 75% complete. Costs to date are $175. The total budget is $1,000. What is the Planned Value (PV) for A and B?
    a. 275
    b. -417.5
    c. 495
    d. -275
    • a. 275
    • Add the planned value of Activity A plus B?PV = 200 + 75
  589. The estimated worth of Activity A is $200 and is 100% complete. Activity B is worth $75 and is 90% complete. Actual costs to date are $120. Activity C is worth $200 and is 75% complete. Costs to date are $175. The total budget is $1,000. What is the CPI?
    a. 0.84
    b. 0.88
    c. 1.16
    d. 1.12
    • a. 0.84
    • EV = % complete * PV = EV - for EACH Activity = 417.50
    • A = 200, B = 67.5, C = 150
    • A = 100% * 200, B = 75 * 90%, C = 200 * 75%
    • AC = the sum of the Actual Costs = 495
    • CPI = EV/AC = .84
  590. The estimated worth of Activity A is $200 and is 100% complete. Activity B is worth $75 and is 90% complete. Actual costs to date are $120. Activity C is worth $200 and is 75% complete. Costs to date are $175. The total budget is $1,000. What is the Cost Variance (CV)?
    a. 0.84
    b. 0.88
    c. -77.50
    d. -57.50
    • c. -77.50
    • CV=EV-ACEV = % complete * PV = EV - for EACH Activity = 417.50
    • A = 200, B = 67.5, C = 150
    • AC = the sum of the Actual Costs = 495
    • CV = 417.5 - 495
  591. CPI = Earned Value/Actual Cost, if this is less than 1 it is
    Not good
  592. Earned Value Tracking/Measurement Commonly used options
    • Percent Complete: Reported percent of the budgeted item
    • 50/50: 50% of budget at start and 50% earned at completion
    • Milestone: Completion of work “products” within a work package represent increments of value earned
    • Level of Effort (LOE): Often used for project mgmt / supervision. Level amt of effort earned over time
  593. Which of the following metrics tells you if you are ahead or behind schedule?
    A. Cost Variance (CV)
    B. Budget at completion (BAC)
    C. Schedule performance index (SPI)
    D. Cost performance index (CPI)
    C. Schedule performance index (SPI)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  594. Description of Honesty
    Honesty is our duty to understand the truth and act in a truthful manner both in our communications and in our conduct.
  595. Honesty: Aspirational Standards As practitioners in the global project management community
    • 5.2.1 We earnestly seek to understand the truth.
    • 5.2.2 We are truthful in our communications and in our conduct.
    • 5.2.3 We provide accurate information in a timely manner.
    • 5.2.4 We make commitments and promises, implied or explicit, in good faith.
    • 5.2.5 We strive to create an environment in which others feel safe to tell the truth.
  596. Honesty: Mandatory Standards As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • 5.3.1 We do not engage in or condone behavior that is designed to deceive others, including but not limited to, making misleading or false statements, stating half-truths, providing information out of context or withholding information that, if known, would render our statements as misleading or incomplete.
    • 5.3.2 We do not engage in dishonest behavior with the intention of personal gain or at the expense of another.
  597. Description of Fairness
    Fairness is our duty to make decisions and act impartially and objectively. Our conduct must be free from competing self interest, prejudice, and favoritism.
  598. Fairness: Aspirational Standards As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 4.2.1 We demonstrate transparency in our decision-making process.
    • 4.2.2 We constantly reexamine our impartiality and objectivity, taking corrective action as appropriate.
    • 4.2.3 We provide equal access to information to those who are authorized to have that information.
    • 4.2.4 We make opportunities equally available to qualified candidates.
  599. Fairness: Mandatory Standards As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • Conflict of Interest Situations
    • 4.3.1 We proactively and fully disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest to the appropriate stakeholders.
    • 4.3.2 When we realize that we have a real or potential conflict of interest, we refrain from engaging in the decision-making process or otherwise attempting to influence outcomes, unless or until: we have made full disclosure to the affected stakeholders; we have an approved mitigation plan; and we have obtained the consent of the stakeholders to proceed.

    • Favoritism and Discrimination
    • 4.3.3 We do not hire or fire, reward or punish, or award or deny contracts based on personal considerations, including but not limited to, favoritism, nepotism, or bribery.
    • 4.3.4 We do not discriminate against others based on, but not limited to, gender, race, age, religion, disability, nationality, or sexual orientation.
    • 4.3.5 We apply the rules of the organization (employer, Project Management Institute, or other group) without favoritism or prejudice.
  600. Description of Respect
    • Respect is our duty to show a high regard for ourselves, others, and the resources entrusted to us. Resources entrusted to us may include people, money, reputation, the safety of others, and natural or environmental resources.
    • An environment of respect engenders trust, confidence, and performance excellence by fostering mutual cooperation — an environment where diverse perspectives and views are encouraged and valued.
  601. Respect: Aspirational Standards As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 3.2.1 We inform ourselves about the norms and customs of others and avoid engaging in behaviors they might consider disrespectful.
    • 3.2.2 We listen to others’ points of view, seeking to understand them.
    • 3.2.3 We approach directly those persons with whom we have a conflict or disagreement. 3.2.4 We conduct ourselves in a professional manner, even when it is not reciprocated.
  602. Respect: Mandatory Standards As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • 3.3.1 We negotiate in good faith.
    • 3.3.2 We do not exercise the power of our expertise or position to influence the decisions or actions of others in order to benefit personally at their expense.
    • 3.3.3 We do not act in an abusive manner toward others.
    • 3.3.4 We respect the property rights of others.
  603. Description of Responsibility
    Responsibility is our duty to take ownership for the decisions we make or fail to make, the actions we take or fail to take, and the consequences that result.
  604. Responsibility: Aspirational Standards As practitioners in the global project management community:
    • 2.2.1 We make decisions and take actions based on the best interests of society, public safety, and the environment.
    • 2.2.2 We accept only those assignments that are consistent with our background, experience, skills, and qualifications.2.2.3 We fulfill the commitments that we undertake – we do what we say we will do.
    • 2.2.4 When we make errors or omissions, we take ownership and make corrections promptly. When we discover errors or omissions caused by others, we communicate them to the appropriate body as soon they are discovered. We accept accountability for any issues resulting from our errors or omissions and any resulting consequences.
    • 2.2.5 We protect proprietary or confidential information that has been entrusted to us.
    • 2.2.6 We uphold this Code and hold each other accountable to it.
  605. Responsibility: Mandatory Standards
    As practitioners in the global project management community, we require the following of ourselves and our fellow practitioners:
    • Regulations and Legal Requirements
    • 2.3.1 We inform ourselves and uphold the policies, rules, regulations and laws that govern our work, professional, and volunteer activities.
    • 2.3.2 We report unethical or illegal conduct to appropriate management and, if necessary, to those affected by the conduct.

    • Ethics Complaints
    • 2.3.3 We bring violations of this Code to the attention of the appropriate body for resolution.
    • 2.3.4 We only file ethics complaints when they are substantiated by facts.
    • 2.3.5 We pursue disciplinary action against an individual who retaliates against a person raising ethics concerns.
  606. Persons to Whom the Code of Ethic Applies
    • 1.2.1 All PMI members
    • 1.2.2 Individuals who are not members of PMI but meet one or more of the following criteria: .
    • 1 Non-members who hold a PMI certification .
    • 2 Non-members who apply to commence a PMI certification process .
    • 3 Non-members who serve PMI in a volunteer capacity.

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