Bio-Ch.2

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Author:
lynn.padlipsky
ID:
99639
Filename:
Bio-Ch.2
Updated:
2011-09-03 19:51:32
Tags:
Bio
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Description:
Chemical Basis of Life
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  1. Nonpolar covalent bond
    A type of covalent bond in which electron are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativity
  2. Chemical bond
    An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell (-)s or the presence of opp charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer (-) shells
  3. Matter
    Anything that takes up space and has mass
  4. Atom
    The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element
  5. pH Scale
    • A measure of hydrogen ion concentration
    • Equal to -log[H+] and ranging in val from 0-14
  6. Hydrogen Bond
    A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
  7. Ion
    An atom that has gained or lost electrons thus acquiring a charge
  8. Proton
    • A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge
    • Found in nucleus of an atom
  9. Polar Molecule
    A molecule with opp charges on opp sides
  10. Salt
    • Compounds resulting from the formation of ionic bonds
    • Also called an ionic compound
  11. Base
    A substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  12. Acid Precipitation
    Rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than pH 5.6
  13. Solute
    A substance that is dissolved in a solution
  14. Chemical Reaction
    • A process leading to chem changes in matter
    • Involves the making and/or breaking of chem bonds
  15. Electron
    • A subatomic particle with a single neg charge
    • One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom
  16. Ionic Bond
    A chem bond resulting from the attraction b/t opp charged ions
  17. Element
    Any substance that c/n be broken down to any other substance
  18. Polar Covalent Bond
    • A type of covalent bond b.t atoms that differ in electronegativity
    • The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly neg and the other atom slightly positive
  19. Cohesion
    The binding together of like molecules, often hydrogen bonds
  20. Electronegativity
    The attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
  21. Atomic Weight
    The total atomic mass, which is the mass in grams of one mole of the atom
  22. Atomic Number
    • The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
    • Unique for each element
  23. Mass Number
    The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
  24. Heat
    Total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
  25. Covalent Bond
    Type of strong chem bond in which two atoms share on pair of valence (-)s
  26. Electron Shell
    An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
  27. Radioactive Isotope
    • An isotope that is unstable
    • Nucleus decays spontaneously
  28. Buffer
    A substance that consists of acid and base forms in a solution and that minimizes changes in pH when extraneous acids or bases are added to the solution
  29. Nucleus
    • An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons
    • The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell
    • A cluster of neurons
  30. Temperature
    Measure of the intensity of heat in degrees reflecting the avg kinetic energy of the molecules
  31. Molecule
    Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
  32. Neutron
    An electrically neutral particle found in nucleus of atom
  33. Surface tension
    • Measure of how diff it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
    • Water has a high surface tension b.c of hydrogen bonding of surface molecules
  34. Double covalent bond
    Type of covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
  35. Acid
    A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
  36. Trace element
    An element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amounts
  37. Solution
    A homogeneous, liquid mix of 2 or more substances

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