Ch 10 Euro

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  1. Jacob Burckhardt
    Historian who claimed the Renaissance period was in distict contrast to the Middle Ages
  2. Condottieri
    Mercenary generals of private armies hired by cities for military purposes
  3. Republic of Florence ruled by
    Medici family
  4. Cosimo de Medici
    Allied with other powerul families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic
  5. Lorenzo de Medici
    • "The Magnificent"
    • significant patron of the arts
    • ruled Florence in totalitarian fashion
  6. Duchy of Milan ruled by
    Sforza family
  7. Venice, Venetian Republic
    • longest lasting of the Italian states
    • one of the world great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
  8. Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
    • including south Italian region of Naples and the island of Sicily
    • only Italian city-state to officially have a king
  9. Charles VII
    Requested French help in order to take over Naples
  10. Girolamo Savonarola
    • became the unofficial leader of Florence
    • anti-humanist
    • ordered "bonfire of the vanities"
  11. Niccolo Machiavelli
    • wrote The Prince
    • stated politically "the ends justify the means"
    • stated for rulers, "it was better to be feared than to be loved"
    • wanted Italy to act decisively for the good of the country
  12. Ciompi Revolt
    • successful revolt of poor establishing four year reign of bower by the lower Florentine classes and caused feuding between the old & new rich
    • social anarchy due to Black Death
    • collapse of banking houses
  13. Humanism
    • revival of antiquity of Greece and Rome in philosophy, literature, and art
    • strong belief in individualism
    • focused on studying ancient languages
  14. Civic Humanism
    • idea that eduacation should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs
    • should promote individual virtue and public service
  15. Petrarch
    • "father of humanism"
    • considered first modern writer
    • Letters to the Ancient Dead
    • claimed Middle Ages were the Dark Ages
    • wrote poetry (Sonnets to Laura) in the venacular
  16. Boccacio
    • wote Decameron about black plague
    • wrote 100 Earthly Tales as social commentary
  17. Leonardo Bruni
    • first to use the term "humanism"
    • first modern historian
  18. Lorenzo Valla
    • On the False Donation of Constantine, exposed as 8th century fraud using textual evidence
    • pointed out errors in Latin and in the Vulgate
    • defended predestination against advocates of free will
  19. Marsilio Ficino
    founded the Platonic Academy
  20. Pico della Mirandolla
    • wrote Oration of the Dignity of Man
    • "manifesto" of humanism
  21. Casiglione
    • wrote The Book of the Courtier
    • specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman
    • described the ideal "Renaissance man"
  22. Characterisitcs of Renaissance Art:
    • realism and expression
    • perspective
    • classicism
    • emphasis on individualism
    • geometrical arrangement of figures
    • light and shadowing
  23. Johann Gutenberg
    developed movable type
  24. Christian Humanism
    emphasis on early Church writings that provided ansers on how to improve society and reform the Church
  25. Erasmus
    • most famous northern humanist
    • wrote In Praise of Folly
    • criticized immorality and hypocricy of the Church; influenced Martin Luther
    • published his tutoring dialogues Colloquies satirizing religious supersition
    • published Adages popularizing familiar expressions
    • work was placed on Index of Forbidden Books
    • "prince of humanists"
  26. Thomas More
    • became Lord Chancellor to Henry VIII
    • wrote Utopia a criticism of modern society
    • executed for reputing Act of Supremacy and refusing to recognize marriage of Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII
  27. Jacques Lefevra d'Estables
    • leading French humanist
    • produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a single authoritative version of the Bible
  28. Francois Rabelais
    wrote Gargantua, a folk epic that satirized French society
  29. Michel de Montaigne
    • developed the essay form
    • one must be tolerant of other's views
    • skepticism-doubt that true knowledge could be obtained
  30. Christine de Pisan
    wrote The City of Ladies
  31. Characterisitics of New Monarchs
    • reduced power of nobility through taxation, land confiscation, and hiring of mercenary armies
    • reduced political power of the clergy
    • enlisted support of townspeople
  32. Louis XI
    • the "Spider King"
    • dealt ruthlessly with nobles
    • increased taxes
    • exerted power over the clergy
    • made France larger due to collapse of English Empire and defeat of Burgundy
  33. War of the Roses
    • House of York vs. House of Lancaster
    • rise of Tudor dynasty
    • Richard III defeated at Bosworth Field
    • houses united under Tudor Henry VII and marriage to Elizabeth of York
  34. Henry VII
    • reduced the inflence of the nobility
    • created Court of Star Chamber to lessen nobility's weight in courth decisions
  35. Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon
    • their two kingdowms united but remained constitutionally separate
    • accomplished subdueing realms, securing borders, venture abroad militarily, Christianized all of Spain
  36. Tomas de Torquemada
    monitored activity of converted Jews and Muslims
  37. Hapsburg Empire (HRE)
    consisted of about 300 semi-autonomous German states
  38. Bartholomew Dias
    rounded Cape of Good Hope
  39. Vasco de Gama
    completed an all-water expedition to India
  40. Bartholomew de las Casas
    • publicly criticized ruthless treatment of the Amerindians
    • writings helped spread the "black legend" in Protestant countries
  41. Treaty of Tordesillas
    • divided New World between Spain and Portugal
    • portugal granted slave trade rights
  42. Vasco Numez de Balboa
    discovered the Pacific Ocean
  43. Francisco Pizarro
    conquered Inca Empire
  44. Alphonso d'Alburquerque
    established an empire in the Spice Islands
  45. Flemish style
    • low countries produced important artists
    • more detail throughout paintings
    • use of oil paints
  46. Jan Van Eyck
    Ghent Altarpiece
  47. Pope Julius II
    "warrior pope"
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Ch 10 Euro
2011-09-04 17:26:40

Chapter 10 European History Notes
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