Bio Week 2

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Author:
jennyroyter
ID:
99721
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Bio Week 2
Updated:
2011-09-04 15:01:20
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bio
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Week 2 Lectures & Lab
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  1. Chemical reaction=
    • breaking and reforming of bonds
    • reactants to products
    • all chemical reactions must be balanced
  2. Biological chemical reaction, ex. photosynthesis
    6CO2+6H2O----> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    yield = light
  3. Water molecule can make ___ bonds
    4
  4. what are the 4 emergent properties of water?
    • cohesive behavior
    • ability to moderate temperature
    • expansion upon freezing
    • versatility as a solvent
  5. cohesion
    the tendency of a substance to stick to itself b/c of hydrogen bonds b/c of polar covalent bonds
  6. adhesion
    • the tendency of a substance to stick to some other substance
    • ex. water sticks to cellulose and it climbs up trees
  7. capillary action
    • cohesion + adhesion working together
    • it is an unbroken bond of water; one air bubble would ruin it
  8. surface tension
    • property of cohesion + adhesion
    • the amount of force required to break the surface
    • water has high surface tension relative to other liquids.
  9. moderating effects of temperature by H2O (all due to hydrogen bonding)
    • kinetic energy= energy of motion
    • heat= the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion
    • temperature= average kinetic energy of molecules
    • ex. high flame will break hydrogen bonds (boiling water)
    • breaking hydrogen bonds=gas molecules absorb heat
    • when things are colder, hydrogen bonds form
    • forming hydrogen bonds releases heat to the air
    • large bodies of water moederate temp
  10. why does ice float?
    hydrogen bonds-when cool- makes an ordered crystal shape, "arm's length", so that it's less dense than water
  11. what happens to heat when ice is formed?
    heat is released to the water below and air above.
  12. calorie
    amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree celcius
  13. specific heat
    heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree celcius
  14. what is water's specific heat?
    1 cal/g/degree celcius
  15. why does water resist change in temperature?
    due to high specific heat
  16. solution
    a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of a substance
  17. solvent
    dissolving agent of solution
  18. solute
    substance thats dissolved
  19. aqueous solution
    where water is solvent
  20. ionic bonds are weak when
    wet
  21. shell of hydration
    • substance must be ion or polar to get shell
    • ex. NaCl in water
  22. saturated solution
    too much solute, not enough water (solvent)
  23. hydrophyllic
    water solubile (charged/polar)
  24. hydrophobic
    • not water solubile
    • contains no polar bonds or charges
    • ex. C+H
  25. Molecular mass (or mw)
    • sum of all the masses of all atoms in a molecule
    • ex. water is 1+1+16=18
  26. Molar units
    1 mol per Liter
  27. pH
    1 out of 10 million times in pure water there is one hydronium (H3O+) ion and one hydroxide (OH-) ion
  28. acids
    • donates H+ to the solution
    • 1-6 acidic
  29. base
    • donates OH- to solution or removes H+ from solution
    • 8-14 basic
  30. buffer
    resists changes in pH
  31. buffering system
    weak acid and the salt of a weak acid
  32. strong acids
    ionize 100 %, but weak acids do not
  33. why are measurements important?
    • replication
    • communication
    • function
    • objectivity
  34. metric system
    • used worldwide
    • based on tens
    • volume, mass, length are tied together for easier calculations
  35. transfer pipette vs. serological pipette?
    • transfer pipette has no measurements. it is used as a guide to add one drop at a time
    • serological pipette is used as a measuring device for volume and it has lines on it for 5 ml 10 ml etc.
  36. proteins
    • weak bonds keep proteins together
    • hydrogen bonds, van der waals, ionic
    • if its too acidic, protein loses structure + function and it denaturates because H+ break the bonds
  37. hemoglobin changes
    • lung pH is 7.4
    • leg pH is 7.2
    • when hemoglobin gets to legs, its shape slightly changes so that the O leaves the protein and enters tissue
  38. Human blood buffer is
    carbonic acid
  39. increase in CO2
    • it increases H protons in oceans
    • which removes CO32- ion, coral reefs cant build and they die
  40. we're carbon based life forms because
    carbon makes 4 bonds and it can form 3-D molecules
  41. carbon combined to itself and other elements can form
    single bonds, double bonds, triple bonds, long chains, branch, rings, fused rings
  42. structural isomers
    • same formula, same MW, different structure in space
    • ex. pentane C5H12
  43. when its a double bond, carbon
    cannot rotate
  44. 2 types of geometric isomers
    • cis-isomer = same side
    • trans-isomer = different side
  45. enantiomers
    • mirror images
    • ex. your two hands
    • there is two: levo (left side) and dexar (right side)
    • all amino acids are L in nature
    • all sugars are D
  46. functional groups:
  47. carboxyl
    • carboxylic acid or organic acid
    • R-C--O
    • -O-H
  48. amino acids
    • monomors for proteins
    • very polar molecule
    • put on organic molecule and it makes it basic
    • R-N-H
    • -H
  49. sulfhydryl = thiol
    S-H
  50. phosphate

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