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  1. Subjective data
    Data obtained from the patient verbally
  2. Objective data
    Information obtained through the senses and hands on physical examination
  3. Four elements of malpractice
    Duty, Breach of duty, Causation, Injury
  4. Five components of nursing process
    Assessment (data collection), Nursing diagnosis, Planning, Implementation, Evaluation
  5. Medical asepsis vs surgical asepsis
    • Medical=practice of reducing the number of organisms present or reducing the risk of transmission of organisms
    • Surgical=practice of prepaaring and handing materials in a way that prevents the patient's exposure to living microorganisms
  6. Six parts of the chain of infection
    • Causative agent
    • Reservoir
    • Portal of exit
    • Mode of transfer
    • Portal of entry
    • Susceptible host
  7. 5th vital sign must show
    location, intensity, character, frequency, and duration
  8. Kussmaul's respirations
    Fast, deep respirations
  9. Biot's respirations
    Fast, deep respirations with abrupt pauses
  10. Cheyne-Stokes
    Respirations become faster and deeper, the slower and shallower with a period of apnea
  11. Crackles
    (Rales)-abnormal nonmusical sounds heard during inspiration (hair between the fingers next to the ears)
  12. Rhonchi
    Continuous dry, rattling sounds caused by partial obstruction
  13. Stertor
    Snoring sound produced when patients are unable to cough up secretions from the tranchea or bronchi
  14. Stridor
    Crowing sound on inspiration caused by obstruction of the upper air passages as occurs in croup or laryngitis
  15. Wheeze
    Whistling sound of air forced past a partial obstruction as found in asthma or emphysema
  16. Four areas to listen for heart
    Aortic, Pulmonic, Tricuspid, Mitral
  17. Where is the apex of the heart?
    FIfth intercostal space at the midclavicular line
  18. Nine pulse points
    Temporal, Carotid, Apical, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Popliteal, Postterior tibial, Dorsalis pedis
  19. Where do you hear S1 (lub)?
    Apex (mitral)
  20. Where do you hear S2 (dub)?
    Aortic area
  21. NAPNES standards for LPNs
    • Professional behaviors
    • COmmunication
    • Assessment
    • Caring
    • Planning and interventions
    • Managing
  22. Edema standards
    • +1 up to 1/4 inch
    • +2 1/4 to 1/2
    • +3 1/2 to 1 inch
    • +4 > 1inch
  23. Nursing diagnosis
    • Problem + etiology+signs+symptoms
    • Subjective
    • Objective
    • Assessment
    • Planning
  24. BP numbers
    • Normal <120 and <80
    • Prehypertension 120-139 or 80-89
    • Hypertension 1 140-159 or 90-99
    • Hypertension 2 >160 or >100
  25. Vitals in aging
    • T=lower normal temp
    • P=may be irregular
    • R=may rise as decreases in vital capacity and respiratory reserve occur
    • BP=rises slightly because arteries tend to harden with age
  26. Kussmaul's respirations may be in people with
    diabetic acidosis and renal failure
  27. Host may be susceptible by virtue of
    age, state of health, broken skin
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