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a collection of one or more minerals
A collection of one or more elements (atoms).
What makes up rocks & minerals?
a granite <rock> is made of quartz +feldspar + biotite <minerals>. quartz <a mineral> = silicon + oxygen
An atom is the smallest piece of matter that exists with unique chemical properties
An element describes different types of atoms
Periodic table of the elements
There are 112 known elements, but only 92 are naturally occurring.
- Atom loses an electron from its outer shell to another atom. Ex:Halite
electrons are shared, rather than exchanged between two atoms. Ex: Quartz
atoms share clouds of electrons. Electrons in the outer shells drift from one atom to another as a result of close packing of the atoms. Ex:Gold
Van der Waals Bonds
a weak secondary bond between electrically neutral molecules (each have a + and - end). Ex:Graphite
Atoms to Minerals
Approximately 20 important rock forming minerals that fall into 6 groups…
- Silicate mineral
- Carbonate mineral
- Sulfate minerals
- Halide minerals
- Oxide minerals
- Sulfide minerals
Has a silicate tetrahedron (SiO4) as the basic chemical property. Silicates are the dominant group in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
Have Ca, Mg, Fe (and others) attached to a carbonate ion (CO3-). They typically form in water and are important sedimentary rocks.
Have Ca (and other) calcium ions attached to a sulfate ion (SO4-2). Most rock-forming sulfate minerals, such as gypsum and anhydrite, occur in due to evaporation (sedimentary).
Have positive ions (Na, K) attached to negative ions (Cl, Br). Most rock-forming halides occur due to evaporation (salts) in sedimentary rocks.
Have metallic ions combined with oxygen. Usually economic minerals. Occur in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
Have metallic ions combined with sulfur. They occur in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
Rocks on Earth have a varierty of origins:
- Crystallization of magma (IGNEOUS)
- Deposition of particles weathered and eroded from preexisting rocks (SEDIMENTARY)
- Biologic precipitation (BIOMINERALIZATION)
- Alteration of preexisting rocks(METAMORPHISM) Biomineralization in commenly considered a sed. process
Unconsolidated particles of rock that have been transported by agents of erosion and unconsolidated particles formed as skeletal material through biominralization
Sedimentary Rx. (from latin word sedimentum, "to settle")
A rock, usually layerd, formed from sediments and from minerals precipitated under aqueous conditions
Metamorphic Rx. (from Greek word meta, "change, " and morphe, "form."
Rock whose original mineralogy or texture has been transformed though any combination of heat, pressure, chemical environment (inc. hydrothermal fluids), and shearing stress.
Types of Rocks
Rx. organized according to their texture or fabric (size of grains or crystals, their packaging, etc.) and their compsition (quartz, feldspar, mica, clay, calcite, etc.)
system or classification according to origin
Igneous Rocks & Processes
Intrusive (plutonic) rocks
Ig. rx. usually coarsely crystalline (phaneritic), that resulted from the cooling and solidification of magma within Earth's crust. Ex:Granite, Diorite, Gabbro
Extrusive (volcanic) rocks
Ig.rx. usually finely crystalline (aphenitic), that resulted from cooling and solidification of magma erupted onto Earth's surface. Ex: Rhyolite, Andesite, Basalt
extrusive rocks cont.
- Rhyolite is formed of tuff-fine volcanic ash mixed with larger particles called lapilli.
- Another term for ext.rx. is pyroclastic, refers to rx. formed by violent ejection of broken rock fragments from a volcano
Obsidian (volcanic glass)
forms when lava cools and solidifies rapidly.It is an amorphous or noncrystalline solid, aka mineraloid
Common Igneous Rocks consist mostly of 6 minerals
Quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, pyroxene, and olivine.
- Light colored ig.rx.
- dominated by Quartz, feldspar, and muscovite (potassium rich)mica. Ex. Granite & ryholite. form much of the continental crust
Mafic & Ultramafic
- Dark colored ig.rx.
- dominated by biotite (a ferromagnesian, or Fe- and Mg- bearing) mica, amphibole, and pyroxene.
- Mafic- basalt and gabbro
- Ultramafic- peridotite
- midway between felsic and mafic
- Ex: andesite, diorite
An irregularly shaped intrusive (plutonic) ig. rock body larger then 100 km2 and no known base.
An irregularly shaped intrusive (plutonic) ig. rock body smaller then 100 km2.
Unusually large crystals. Often containing desirable and rare elements as Be, B, and Li
Thin, tabular, sheet-like intrusive body that cuts across the layering or fabric of preexisting rocks.
a tabular, sheet-like intrusion that extends parallel to the layering or fabric of the rocks it intrudes.
extends parallel to the layering or fabric of preexisting rocks, but when it was emplaced, it caused the intruded rocks to bend upward into a dome.
Sedimentary Rocks and Processes
The process involving in changing sediments to rock.
the precursors of sed.rx., are particles (or clasts) composed of silicate minerals (notebly quartz, mica, and feldspar).