Joint Structure & Function Quiz 2 9/8/11

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  1. Three basic principles in determinding joint structure and function
    Joint design, structure & function
  2. Joint design
    determined by the funtion of the joint and its component parts
  3. Joint structure
    Determines the joint's function
  4. Single vs. Complex function joints
    • Single- creates stability (cranium sutures)
    • Complex- creates mobility (hip)
  5. How many bones are in the Human body?
  6. Joint Categories (classification of Joints)
    Synarthroses & diarthroses joints
  7. Synarthroses (non-synovial) Joints
    Made up of 2 types of connective tissue w/ no synovial fluid & no synovial membrane
  8. Fibrous Joints
    • bone--solid connective tissue--bone
    • -Fibrous connective tissue

    • a) suture joint
    • b) gomphosis joint
    • c) syndemosis
  9. Suture Joint
    only example- coronal sutures in the human skull
  10. Gomphosis Joint
    • Peg in a hole
    • (ex) tooth is inserted in the bony socket of the mandible
  11. Syndemosis Joint
    • Two bony components are joined directly by a ligament, cord, or aponeurotic membrane.
    • (ex) shaft of the fibula and tibia (held by aponeurotic membrane)
  12. Diarthrosis Joint
    (ex) Cartilagenous Joint

    • -Joint Capsule
    • -Joint Cavity
    • -Synovial membrane
    • -Synovial Fluid
    • -Hyaline cartilage
  13. Cartilagenous Joint

    The cartilage material here is fibrocartilage or hyaline growth cartilage

    • -Symphysis Joint
    • -Synchondrosis
  14. Symphysis Joint
    • Fibrocartilage Material
    • (ex) symphysis pubis joint (forms the 2 sides of the pelvis)
  15. Synchondrosis Joint
    -most clinically used in diarthrosis category
    • Hyaline Growth Cartilage in the developing skeletal system-- When the individual reaches maturity, the hyaline cartilage ossifies and converts to a bony union
    • (ex) first sternalcostal joint
  16. Joint Capsule
    encapsulates the entire joint structure, made of fibrous tissue (stratum fibrosum)
  17. Joint Cavity
    • enclosed by the entire joint capsule
    • -needed for articulation (bone on bone)
  18. Synovial Membrane
    lines the inner surface of the capsule (stratum synovium)-- creates synovial fluid
  19. Synovial Fluid
    Forms a film over the joint surface
  20. Hyaline Cartilage
    • Covers the joint surface (articular cartilage)
    • --also found on the ends of long bones
  21. Subclassification of Synovial Joints
    • -Uniaxial Joints
    • -Biaxial Joints
    • -Triaxial Joints
  22. Uniaxial Joints
    One plane/axis of movement/ one degree of freedom

    • -Hinge Joints
    • -Pivot Joints
  23. Hinge Joints
    • Sagittal plane/frontal axis
    • Flexion/extension movement

    (ex) IP Joints of the hands
  24. Biaxial Joints
    Two planes/axis of movement/ two degrees of freedom
  25. Motion & Planes of Biaxial Joints
    • -frontal plane/a-p axis
    • -sagittal plane/frontal axis
    • -Flexion & Extension
    • -Abduction & Adduction
    • (Ex) Metacarpal Joints- knuckles of the hand & Saddle Joint of the thumb
  26. Triaxial Joints
    Three planes/axis of movement or three degrees of freedom
  27. Motion & Planes of Triaxial Joints
    • -Transverse plane/longitudinal axis
    • -frontal plane/a-p axis
    • -sagittal plane/frontal axis

    • -flexion/extension
    • -abduction/adduction
    • -internal/external rotation
  28. Stratum Fibrosum
    • Outer Layer of the Joint Capsule
    • -Poorly vascularized, richly innervated w/ joint receptors (not a lot of blood vessels, but many feedback receptors-- tells brain where joints are in relation to space)
  29. Stratum Synovium
    • Inner layer of the Joint Capsule
    • -highly vascularized but poorly innervated
    • -Entry point of nutrients into the synovial fluid & exit point for waste products
    • -Helps produce synovial fluid
  30. Synovial Fluid
    • Compound of Hyaluronate & Lubricin
    • -Creates fluid viscosity
  31. Factors which affect the viscosity of synovial fluid
    • Increased speed in the Joint=decreased viscosisty w/ least amout of joint resistance to movement
    • Increased temperature=decreased viscosity
  32. Joint Lubrication Theories
    • -Boundary Lubrication
    • -Fluid Lubrication
  33. Boundary Lubrication
    Each weight bearing surface is coated w/ a thin layer of molecules which keeps the opposing surfaces from toucing each other--lubricin adheres to the artiular surfaes
  34. Fluid Lubrication
    Articular cartilage releases fluid when hydrosttic pressure increases in weight bearing joints, fluid stops when pressure decreases
  35. Arthrokinematics
    the study of movement of the joint surfaces (articular surfaces) and their interaction w/ each other
  36. 3 Definitions of Movement
    • -Rolling
    • -Sliding
    • -Spinning
  37. Rolling Movement
    • Like a tire rolling on the road
    • (ex) knee joint
  38. Sliding Movement
    • Translation--like gliding one component over another
    • (ex) the TMJ joint, knuckles of the hand
  39. Spinning Movement
    • Like a toy top spinning
    • (ex) superior radio-ulnar joint--the head of the radius spins on the capitulum of the humerus
  40. Curvilinear Movement
    Combination of spinning & rolling
    • -Ovoid Joint
    • -Sellar Joint
  43. Ovoid Joint
    • -One surface is concave, the other is convex
    • -Articulating surface of th bone moves in opposite direction of the moving bone
    • (ex) abduction of shoulder bone (humerus)
  44. Sellar Joint
    • -Joint surface is convex & concave
    • -Articulating surface of the bone moves in the same direction as the moving bone
    • (ex) knee joint
  45. Osteokinematics
    • movement of bones rather than the movement of articulating surfaces (more important clinically)
    • **Use ROM when identifying the movement of the bones
  46. Range of Motion (ROM)
    range which is available to a joint w/in the anatomical limits of the joint
  47. Determining factors of anatomical limits
    • - shape of the joint surface
    • - the joint capsule
    • - ligaments
    • - muscle bulk
    • - surrounding structures
  48. Hypermobility
    Increased/accessive ROM
  49. Hypomobility
    Limited ROM
  50. Contracture
    • Fixed joint=no more functional movement
    • --more common w/ flexors/extensors
  51. Living Material Used in making Human Joints
    • -ligaments, tendons, bursae, cartilage, disks, plates, menisci, fat pads, ect.
  52. Connective Tissue
    • Composed of
    • -Cellular Component & Extracellular Matrix
  53. Cellular Component of Connective Tissue
    • -Produce/maintain extracellular matrix
    • -Antibodies fight infection
  54. Extracellular Matrix
    • a) Non-Fibrous component/ground substance
    • b) Fibrous Component
  55. Non-Fibrous component/ ground substance
    • -Binds water & provides support
    • -Maintains hydration w/in the tissue w/ protiens (glycoprotein/proteoglycans)

    **glycoproteins affect extracellular matrix which affects stability
  56. Fibrous Component
    • Support framework w/
    • 1) collagen=strength
    • 2) elastin=elasticity

    ~flexibilty & support
Card Set:
Joint Structure & Function Quiz 2 9/8/11
2011-09-05 03:24:10
Lecture Joint structure connective tissue composition

Principles in determining joint structure & function, joint categories, arthokinematics, osteokinematics,
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