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  1. mass
    measure of the amount of matter and object contains
  2. weight
    vertical force experienced by a mass because of gravity
  3. in what three forms does matter exist (states of matter)
    solid, liquid, gas
  4. matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  5. energy
    has no mass and does not take up space
  6. kinetic energy
    • energy that is doing actual work
    • -energy of motion
  7. potential energy
    inactive or stored energy
  8. types of energy
    • chemical-energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances
    • electrical-movement of charged particles
    • mechanical-energy directly involved in moving matter
    • radiant-evergy that travels in waves
  9. what is the most important source of chemical energy in the body?
  10. elements
    sustances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
  11. atoms
    make up elements
  12. atomic symbols
    the chemical shorthand for an element
  13. three subatomic particles
    • protons- positive, nucleus
    • neutrons- neutral, nucleus
    • electrons- negative, electron cloud
  14. nucleus
    central portion of an atom, contains the protons and neutrons
  15. protons
    the positively charged particles
  16. neutrons
    the neutral particles
  17. electrons
    the negative charged particles, outside the nucleus
  18. planetary model
    electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus
  19. orbital model
    shows probable location of the electrons
  20. atomic number =
    number of protons
  21. atomic number
    the number of protons in the nucleus
  22. atomic mass=
    # of protons plus neutrons
  23. atomic mass number
    sum of the protons and neutrons
  24. isotopes
    have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons
  25. atomic weight
    the average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes
  26. radioisotopes
    heavier unstable isotopes that decay into their more stable form
  27. molecules
    when two or more atom are held together by chemical bonds
  28. molecule of element
    when two or more of the same atoms bind together
  29. molecule of compound
    two or more diffatoms bind together
  30. mixture
    two or more components physically intermixed
  31. solutions
    homogenous mixtures of components
  32. solvent
    the substance present in the greatest amount
  33. solute
    the substance in smaller amounts
  34. colloids
    emulsions or heterogeneous mixtures
  35. suspensions
    heterogeneous mixtures with large often visible particles
  36. electron shells
    the space that an electron occupies
  37. energy levels
    each electron shell has a different energy level
  38. valence
    the number of electrons in an atom's outermost shell
  39. ionic bonds
    when electrons are transferred from one atom to another
  40. ions
    when electrons are gained or lost, charged particle results
  41. anions
    negatively charged ion
  42. cation
    postitively charged ion
  43. covalent bonds
    sharing electrons
  44. nonpolar molecules
    when electrons are equally shared and the molecule is electrically balanced
  45. polar molecule
    an unequal sharing of electrons
  46. electronegative
    attract electrons strongly
  47. electropositive
    weakly attract electrons
  48. hydrogen bonds
    weak bonds between hydrogen atoms
  49. surface tension
    the tendency of water molecules to stick together
  50. intermolecular bonds
    binds a large molecule into a three dimensional shape
  51. reactants
    the reacting substances
  52. products
    the product that results
  53. synthesis reaction
    two atoms or molecules form a more complex molecule (anabolic)
  54. decompostion reaction
    a molecule is broken into smaller molecules
  55. temperature
    increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy-faster reaction
  56. particle size
    smaller particles move faster so a faster chemical reaction
  57. concentration
    faster reaction when the concentration of a particle is higher
  58. catalysts
    substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction
  59. structural levels of proteins
    • primary- the linear sequence of amino acids
    • secondary- the twisted linear sequence, alpha helix or beta pleated sheet, joined by hydrogen bonds
    • tertiary- the secondary structure coils to form a ball
    • quaternary-two or more polypeptide chains joined together
  60. fibrous
    structural proteins like collagen
  61. globular proteins
    functional proteins involved in chemical reaction
  62. protein denaturation
    hydrogen bonds can be broken by changes in temperature and pH, the protein is denatured and is ineffective because the active site must have a certain shape
  63. molecular chaperones
    help proteins form their shape
  64. enzymes
    • globular proteins that act as vatalysts, * each enzyme is chemically specific
  65. cofactors
    ion of a metal or a vitamin that helps in a chemical reation
  66. activation energy
    energy needed to start a chemical reaction
  67. nucleic acids
    composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus
  68. nucleotides
    the structural units of nucleic acids; nitrogen containing bas, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group
  69. DNA
    the genetic material, in the nucleus
  70. RNA
    carries out the orders for protein synthesis from DNA
  71. adenosine triphosphate
    the form of energy storage in cells
  72. high-energy phosphate bonds
    very unstable for three phosphate groups to be next to each other and when the bond breaks, energy is released
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