•especially abnormal or impaired development in social interactions, such as hiding to avoid people, not making eye contact, and not wanting to be touched
•marked by difficulties in communicating, such as grave problems in developing spoken language or in initiating conversations
refers to a combination of physiological, emotional, and cognitive components. Interferes with one's concentration, planning, and academic performance.
the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
–Focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with our environments to influence learning, personality, memory, motivation, emotions, and coping techniques. Ex. Autism
Goals of Psychology are....
Describe, Explain, Predict, and Control.
The first goal....to describe the different ways organisms behave.
the second goal...to explain the cause of behavior.
the third goal....to predict how organisms will behave in certai situations.
the fourth goal...to control an organism's behavior.
–Examines how we process, store, and use information and how this information influences what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember, believe, and feel.
examines how we process, store, and use information.
Studies how organisms learn new behaviors or modify existing ones.
Social cognitive approach:
Behaviors are influenced not only by environmental events and reinforcers but also by observation, imitation, and thought processes.
Stresses the influence ofunconscious fears, desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors, and the development of personality traits and psychological problems later in life.
Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future
-Studies the influence of cultural/ethnic similarities and differences on psychological and social functioning
Studies how evolutionary ideas,such as adaptation and natural selection, explain human behaviors and mental processes.
uses different approaches to study the same behavior.
Studied the most basic elements,primarily sensations and perceptions, that make up our conscious mental experiences (Elements of the mind) (Wilhelm Wundt)
Studied the function rather than the structure of consciousness; was interested in how our minds adapt to our changing environment(functions of the mind) (William James)
Emphasized that perception is more than the sum of its parts and studied how sensations are assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences(sensations versus perceptions)(Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Kohler, and Kurt Koffka)
observable behaviors. (John Watson)
-1920s to 1960s; was the dominant force in American psychology
-1970s to present; challenged by cognitive approach
Psychologists v. Psychiatrist...
-Psychologisrs have completed four to five years of postgraduation education. and have obtained a PhD, PsyD, or EdD in psychology.
–provide many of the same services as clinical psychologists, but usually work with different problems, such as those involving marriage, family, or career counseling.
medical doctors (MDs) who have spent several years in clinical training, which includes diagnosing possible physical and neurological causes of abnormal behaviors and treating these behaviors, often with prescription drugs
–49% of psychologists work as clinical or counseling psychologists in private practice or therapy settings
–28% work in college/university settings
–13% work in a variety of other kinds of jobs and career setting
–6% work in industrial settings
–4% work in secondary schools and other settings
Areas of Specialization
–Clinical and counseling psychology
Clinical and Counseling Psychology:
•includes the assessment and treatment of people with psychological problems, such as grief, anxiety, or stress
•involves the study of social interactions, stereotypes, prejudices, attitudes, conformity, group behaviors,and aggression
•examines moral, social, emotional, and cognitive development throughout a person’s entire life
•includes areas of sensation, perception, learning, human performance, motivation, and emotion.
•involves research on the physical and chemical changes that occur during stress, learning, and emotions, as well as how our genetic makeup, brain, and nervous system interact with our environment and influence our behavior.
•involves how we process, store, and
retrieve information and how cognitive processes influence our behaviors
•focuses on the measurement of people’s abilities, skills, intelligence, personality, and abnormal behaviors
Examines the relationship of people and their work environments.
Researchers use three methods.
-Survey, Case Study, and Experiment.
–Way to obtain information by asking many individuals
–Person to person, telephone or mail
–Answer a fixed set of questions about particular subjects
–In-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings, beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of a single individual.
Personal Case Study- Testimonial:
•statement in support of a particular viewpoint based on detailed observation of a person’s own personal experience
error and bias- Self-fullfilling prophecy:
•having a strong belief or making a statement about a future behavior and then acting, usually unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out that behavior
–Intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving an injection, or undergoing an operation, that resembles medical therapy but, in fact, has no medical effects.
–Change in a patient’s illness that’s attributable to an imagined treatment rather than to a medical treatment
-Rhino Horn, Centipedes, Tiger Bones, and Cough medication
–An association or relationship between the occurrence of two or more events
–Technique for obtaining information by asking questions, ranging from open-ended to highly structured, about a subject’s behaviors and attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation
–Technique for obtaining information by asking subjects to read a list of written questions and check off specific answers
–Techniques to gather information about the brain, genes, or behavior with the least error and bias by using a controlled environment that allows careful observation and measurement
-researchers genetically altered mice to have extra receptors for brain chemicals involved in schizophrenia
–Approach of gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
•a method for identifying cause-and-effect relationships by following a set of rules and guidelines that minimize the possibility of error, bias, and chance occurrences
Conducting the experiment:
–Rule 1: Ask
–Rule 2: Identify
–Rule 3: Choose
–Rule 4: Assign
–Rule 5: Manipulate
–Rule 6: Measure
–Rule 7: Analyze
Rule 1: Ask
Rule 2: Identify
-Independent Variable- control or manipulate
-Dependent Variable- used to measure the potential effects of the treatment or independent variable.
Rule 2: Choose
- Random Selection: equal chance of being selected
Rule 4: Assign
-Experimental Group: those who recieve treatment..
-Control Group: do not recieve treatment
Rule 5: Manipulate
-Double-Blind procedure: neither participants or researchers know which group is recieving treatment
Rule 6: Measure
measure how the independent variable(treatment) affects those behaviors selected as the dependent variables.
Rule 7: Analyze
-Statistical procedures: used to determine whether differences observed in dependent (behaviors) are due to independent (treatment) or to error or chance occurance.
–Includes explaining the purpose and method of the experiment, asking subjects their feelings about participating in the experiment, and helping the subjects deal with possible guilt or doubts that arise from their behaviors
Roles of deception:
–One way that researchers control for participants’ expectations is to use bogus procedures or instructions that prevent participants from learning the experiment’s true purpose.
Alzheimer's dissease cases:
-10% of cases start after age 50
-90% of cases start after age 65
-problems with memory, forgetting and repeating things, getting lost, being mildly confused. No cure; always fatal.
genetic, neurological, environmental factors, and certain chemicals.
program the development of individual parts into a complex body and brain. Chains of chemicals arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder.
guide the growth of developing neurons, release chemicals that influence a neuron's growth and function.
brain cell with two specialized extenstions, one extension is for recieving electrial signals, and the other is for transmitting electrical signals.
Alzheimer's disease has an excessive build up of...
glue-like substances, and gradually destroy neurons.
Large egg-shaped structure that provides fuel, manufactures chemicals, and maintains the entire neuron in working order
–Branch-like extensions that arise from the cell body
•Receive signals from other neurons, muscles, or sense organs
•Pass these signals onto the cell body
–A single thread-like structure that extends/carries signals away from the cell body to neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles
–Looks like separate tube-like segments composed of fatty material that wraps around and insulates an axon
–Prevents interference from electrical signals generated in adjacent axons
End bulbs or terminal bulbs..
–Located at extreme ends of the axon’s branches
–Miniature container that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters (used to communicate with neighboring cells)
–Exists between an end bulb and its adjacent body organ, heart, muscles, or cell body
Peripheral Nervous System...
–Made up of nerves located throughout the body, except in the brain and spinal cord
–String-like bundles of axons and dendrites that come from the spinal cord and are held together by connective tissue
–Carry information from the senses, skin, muscles, and the body’s organs to and from the spinal cord
–Those in the peripheral nervous system have the ability to grow or reattach if severed or damaged
Central Nervous System
made up of nurons located in the brain and spinal cord
–sensors that pick up mechanical pressure and transform it into electrical signals
Signals are sent...
–by the neuron’s axon to various areas in the spinal cord and brain
-axon has a charge, seperates positive ions on the outside from negative ions on the inside.
transport process that picks up any sodium ions that enter the axon's chemical gates and returns them back outside.
–Tiny electric current generated when positive sodium ions rush inside the axon
–Enormous increase of sodium ions inside the axon causes the inside of the axon to reverse its charge
–Inside becomes positive and outside becomes negative
–is made up of six action potentials, with the first occurring at the beginning of the axon
–If an action potential starts at the beginning of the axon, the action potential will continue at the same speed segment to segment to the very end of the axon
A transmitter is...
a chemical messenger that transmits information between nerves and body organs, such as muscles and heart
Excitatory and inhibitory transmitters-
–Excitatory transmitters -open chemical locks and turn on neurons
–Inhibitory transmitters -block chemical locks and turn off neurons
–Dozens of different chemicals made by neurons and then used for communication between neurons during the performance of mental or physical activities
What does alcohol do?
•affects the brain by imitating a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, GABA.
–neurons have chemical locks that can be opened by chemical keys in the form of the neurotransmitter GABA.
Some neurotransmitters are:
-Norepinephrine, GABA, Dopamine, and Serotonin.
•painkiller similar to morphine
•decreases effects of pain during great bodily stress
•involved in the brain’s pleasure and reward system
•high levels: cravings for food or drugs
•low levels: reduce cravings
•involved in sleep and wakefulness
–low levels have been linked to narcolepsy
–Unlearned, involuntary reaction to some stimulus
–Neural connections underlying a reflex are prewired by genetic instructions
•relatively short neuron whose primary task is making connections between other neurons
•carries information away from the spinal cord to produce responses in various muscles and organs throughout the body