Psy 121 Unit 1

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kmhs320
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99906
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Psy 121 Unit 1
Updated:
2011-09-07 09:22:08
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Psycholgy 121
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Invitation to Psychology 5th edition chapters 1 & 4
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  1. Psychology
    The discipline concern with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment; reprecented by Greek letter "PSI"
  2. Epirical
    Relying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.
  3. Phrenology
    The now discredited theory that different brian areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be "read" from bumps on the skull.
  4. Functionalism
    An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
  5. Psychoanalysis
    A theory of personality and a method of psycholotherapy, originally formulated by Simund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
  6. Biological perspective
    A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.
  7. Evolutionary Psychology
    A field of psychology emphasizing evolution mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
  8. Learning perspective
    A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person's or animal's actions, it includes behaviorism and social cognitive learning theories.
  9. Congnitive perspective
    A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perspective, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
  10. Hypothesis
    A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relationships among events or variable and are empirically tested.
  11. Credical thinking
    The ability and willingness to assess claims and makes objective judgements on the basis of well supported reasons and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
  12. Operational definition
    A precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process of phenomenon being defined.
  13. Principle of falsifiability
    The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation.
  14. Confirmation bias
    The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one's own belief, and ignore, trivialize, or forget information that disconfirms that belief.
  15. Theory
    An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specific set of phenomena and their interrelationships.
  16. Representative sample
    A group or individuals, selected from a population for study, which matches that population on important charateristics such as age and sex.
  17. Descriptive methods
    Methods that yeild descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual explainations.
  18. Case study
    A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated.
  19. Observational study
    A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior ; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation.
  20. Psychological tests
    Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotions states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values.
  21. Standardize
    In test construction, to develop uniform prcedures for giving and scoring a test.
  22. Norms
    In test construction, established standards of performance.
  23. Reliability
    In test construction, the consistency of test scores from one time and place to another.
  24. Validity
    The ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure.
  25. Surveys
    Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.
  26. Volunteer bias
    A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample; the voluneers may differ from those who did not volunteer.
  27. Correlation Study
    A descriptive study that looks for consistent relationship between two phenomena.
  28. Correlation
    A measure of how strong two variables are related to each other.
  29. Variables
    Characteristics of bahavior or experienced that can be measured or described by a numerical scale; variables are manipulated and assessed in scientific studies.
  30. Positive correlation
    An association between increases in one bariable and increases in another, or between decreases in one and in the other.
  31. Negative correlation
    An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
  32. Coefficient of correlation
    A measure that ranges in value from -1.00 to + 1.00
  33. Experiement
    A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another.
  34. Informed consent
    The doctrine that human research subjects must participate voluntarily and must know enough about a study to make an intelligent decision about whether to participate.
  35. Indepentant variable
    A variable that an experiementer manipulates.
  36. Dependent Variable
    A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable.
  37. Control condition
    In an experiement, a comparison condition in which subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as are those in the experimental condition.
  38. Random assignment
    A procedure for assigning people

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