Remote Sensing Chapter 7
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What are hyperspectral remote sensing systems?
Those that record data in hundreds of bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.
What are ultraspectral remote sensing systems?
Those that collect data in thousands of bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.
What are the steps in turning digital remote-sensing data into useful information?
- 1. Detect electromagnetic energy that exits the phenomena of interest.
- 2. Energy is recorded as an analog electrical signal.
- 3. The signal is converted into a digital value through an analog-to-digital conversion.
- 4. Data are telemetered to Earth receiving stations, either directly or via tracking or data-relay satellites.
- 5. Data undergo preprocessing, radiometric and geometric.
- 6. Visual or digital information extraction.
- 7. Distribution and use.
What is the smallest non-divisible element of a digital image?
What is the quantization level?
The brightness value (usually 8 to 12 bits) of pixels created during the analog-to-digital conversion that takes place onboard the sensor system. The more bits, the more precisely the amount of radiance recorded by the detector can be measured.
What does ERTS stand for?
Earth Resource Technology Satellite.
What is the Landsat program?
The United States' oldest land-surface observation satellite system, having obtained data since 1972.
What does WRS stand for?
Worldwide Reference System, which locates and obtains Landsat imagery for any area on Earth. It has catalogued the world's landmass into 57,784 scenes, each approximately 185 km wide by 170 km long.
What does MSS stand for?
[Landsat] Multispectral Scanner, which was installed on Landsats 1 through 5. An optical-mechanical system in which a mirror scans the terrain perpendicular to the flight direction, focusing energy reflected or emitted from the terrain onto discrete detector elements. These convert the radiant flux into an electronic signal. The detector elements are placed behind filters that pass broad portions of the spectrum.
What does IFOV stand for?
Instantaneous field of view.
How many pixels are there in a typical MSS scene?
2340 scan lines with about 3240 pixels per line.
What is the Landsat Thematic Mapper?
An optical-mechanical whisk-broom sensor that records energy in the visible, reflective-infrared, middle-infrared, and thermal infrared regions of the spectrum; part of Landsats 4 and 5.
Which Thematic Mapper band provides increased penetration of waterbodies and is good for analyzing land-use, soil, and vegetation characteristics?
Band 1 (blue).
Which Thematic Mapper band reacts to the green reflectance of healthy vegetation?
Band 2 (green).
Which Thematic Mapper band is useful for vegetation discrimination as well as for soil-boundary and geological-boundary delineations?
Band 3 (red).
Which Thematic Mapper band is useful for crop identification and emphasizes soil/crop and land/water contrasts?
Band 4 (near-infrared).
Which Thematic Mapper band is sensitive to the amount of water in plants and can be used to discriminate among clouds, snow, and ice?
Band 5 (mid-infrared).
Which Thematic Mapper band measures the amount of infrared radiant energy emitted from surfaces and is useful for locating geothermal activity, thermal inertia mapping for geologic investigations, vegetation-stress analysis, and soil moisture studies?
Band 6 (thermal infrared).
Which Thematic Mapper band is useful for the discrimination of geologic rock formations?
Band 7 (mid-infrared).
What does GOES stand for?
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites; based on multispectral scanner technlology and operated by NOAA. The U.S. National Weather Service uses data from this and the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites to forecast the weather.
What does AVHRR stand for?
Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer, carried on some NOAA satellites.
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