ch1 crj.txt

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  1. Individual Rights �
    the rights guaranteed to all members of American society by the U.S. Constitution (especially those found in the first 10 amendments to the constitution, known as the bill of rights). These rights are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system Traditional crimes (rape, murder, assault) increased to the 80s
  2. Drug gangs
    � crack � havoc errwhere!
  3. USA Patriot Act �
    a fed law (Public law 107-56) enacted in response to terrorist attacks on 9/11. Officially named the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism act, substantially broadened the investigative authority of law enforcement agencies throughout America and is applicable to many crimes other than terrorism. The law was slightly revised and reauthorized by congress in 2006
  4. Individual-Rights advocate
    • � one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice
    • Public-order advocate � one who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interest of society should take precedence over individual rights
  5. The theme of this book �
    Balancing the concern for individual rights with the need for public order through the administration of criminal justice is the theme of this book
  6. Justice �
    the principle of fairness; the ideal or moral equity
  7. Social justice �
    an ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong
  8. Civil justice �
    the civil law, the law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cant be separated from social justice because the justice enacted in our nation�s civil courts reflects basic American understandings of right and wrong
  9. Criminal justice �
    in the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law. CRJ cant be separated from social justice because the justice enacted in our nation�s criminal courts reflects basic American understandings of right and wrong
  10. Administration of justice �
    • the performance of any of the following activities: detection, apprehension, detention, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders
    • American CRJ: System and functions
  11. CRJ System �
    the aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform CRJ functions. The basic divisions of the operational aspects of CRJ are law enforcement, courts, and corrections.
  12. Consensus model �
    a CRJ perspective that assumes that the system�s components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice.
  13. Conflict model �
    CRJ perspective that assumes that the system�s components function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a product of conflicts among agencies within the system than it is the result of cooperation among component agencies
  14. Warrant �
    in criminal proceedings, a writ issued by judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it
  15. Booking �
    the law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority
  16. Bail �
    the money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody
  17. Primary hearing �
    a proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided. 1) whether a crime was commited. 2)whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and 3) whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant commited the crime
  18. Probable cause �
    a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a specific person has commited a specific crime.
  19. Information �
    a formal, written accusation submitted to a court by a prosecuter, alleging that a specified person commited a specified offense
  20. Indictment �
    a formal, written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person has commited a specified offense, usually a felony
  21. Grand jury �
    a group of jurors who have been selected according to law and have been sworn to hear the evidence and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused person to trial, to investigate criminal activity generally, or to investigate the conduct of a public agency or official
  22. Arraignment �
    strictly, the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case in which the identity of the defendant is established, the defendant is informed of the charge and of his rights, and the defendant is required to enter a plea.
  23. Trial �
    in criminal proceedings, the examination in court of the issues of fact and relevant law in a case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the defendants
  24. Consecutive sentence �
    one of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentence.
  25. Concurrent sentence �
    one of two sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served at the same time
  26. Due Process �
    right guaranteed by the 5th, 6th, and 14th amendments of the US constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of individual rights.
  27. Crime-control model �
    a CRJ perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders
  28. Due process model �
    a CRJ perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing
  29. Social control �
    the use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern of social groups and communitees, and it is their interest in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statues
  30. Criminology �
    the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders
  31. Evidence-based practice �
    crime-fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and are based on social science research
  32. Multiculturalism �
    the existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger society�s legal and political systems
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ch1 crj.txt
2011-09-06 00:30:02
sac state crj srim justice chapter

chapter one key words crj
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