kati bio 2
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one joule equals how many calories?
one calorie equals how many joules?
what is specific heat?
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree celsius
what is relation to hydrogen bnds and specific heat?
heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds and heat is released when hydrogen bonds ar formed.
what are 6 examples of waters high specific heat and some of its advantages to sustaining life on earth?
-such as being burnt when touching an iron pot because heat must first break hydrogen bonds before warming up water in our body
-such as large bodies of water absorbing a huge amounts of heat from the sun in daytime or summer while warming up only a few degrees
-like at night time and in the winter gradually colling water can warm the air.
--coastal areas have milder climates
-high specific heat stabilizes ocean temperatures that are favorable for marine life. water fluctuates temperature on land and in water withtin limits that permit life.
-because we are mostly made of water we can sustain temperature more readily.
what is vaporation or evaporation?
the transformation from liquid to a gas
- molecules move fast enough to escape the attractions and depart the liquid into the air
temerature is the average___
kinetic energy of molecules
what is heat of vaporization?
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb to convert from liquid to the gaseous state.
what are 3 examples of heat vaporizations high amount of energy reqired?
- solar heat absorbed by troical seas is consumed during the evaporization of eaths surface
- tropicql air circulated poleward and releases heata s it condenses and forms rain
-the severity of steam burns. the heat energy released when steam condenses into liquid on the skin.
what is evaporarive cooling?
as a liqid evaporates, the liquid that remains being cooled down
-such a 100 fastest runner leaving a school for a better school and 99 left behind is like the liquid. the fastest runner that escaped is the hottest molecule that escaped to gas
is water less dense as a solid or a liquid?
hydrogen bonds makes ice about ____ less dense than liquis water
10 percent (10 percent fewer molecules for the same volume)
what ability of ice is important in the fitness of the environment?
the ability for ice to float as it expands
-floatin ice insulates the temperature of the the water below it
what is a solution?
a liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
what s a solvent?
the dissolving agent of a solution
what is a solute?
the substance that is dissolved
what is an aqueous solution?
one is which water is the solvent
explain a hydration shell
oxygen atoms are negaive and cling to positivey charged sodium cation.. the hydrogen are attracted to negatively chargd chlorine anions. water olecules surround the individual sodiun and chloride ions, seperating and shielding them from one another. the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell
what is hydrophilic and what is it derived from?
-any substance that has a n affinity for water
-greek hydro- water philios loving
in which cases does a hydrophilic molecule not dissolve in water?
-when molecules in cells are too large. they remain suspended in the aqueous liquid of the cell
what is a colloid?
a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid
what is an example of a hydrophilic substance or colloid?
cotton. it contains cellulose, but water adheres to the cellulose fibers
what is hydrophobic and here is it derived?
- -seems to repel water
- -hydro- water phobic- fear
- -they are substances that are nonionic and nonpolar or for some reason can not form hydrogen bonds
- -such as vegetable oil
- -hydrophobic molecules that are related to oil are major ingredients of c3ll membranes
what is a molecular mass
the mass of all atoms in a molecule
what is a mole (mol)
represents an exact number of objects-6.022e23 (avagadros number)
-the mole of one substance has the same number of moles of any other substance
what is molarity?
the number of moles of solute per liters of solution (concentration)
does H exist by itself ina n aqueous solution?
- no, it always assosiates with another water molecule in the form of h3o.
- -this is a reversible reaction that reaches dynamic equilibrium when water molecules dissociate at the same rate that they are being reformed from H and OH
are H and OH very ractive?
one having more H than OH is ___
what is a base?
substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration
when H and OH are equal it is called
acids that reversibly release are called____ ones that dissociate completely are called ___
h and oh are neautral at what ph?
most biological fluids are between ______ ph
when the ph of a solution changes slightly what happens to the H and OH in the solution?
it changes substantially
what is the ph of human blood?
why does the addition of acid have such less effect oh ph of blood than ph of water
the presence of bufferes in the body allow a relatively constant ph in biological fluids despite the addition of acids and bases
what are buffers?
substances that minimize the changes in concentration of H and OH in a solution.
most buffers are ____
acid base pairs
an example of an acid and a base in equilibrium with eachother is___
what is acid precipitation?
rain snow of fog with a ph lower than 5.2
c02 and h2o form what?
what things such as corals and other organisms affected by?
calcification , the production of calcium carbonate
-indirenctely affected by the conentration of co3 2-
what are the 4 emergent properties of water that contibute to earths fitness for life?
- -moderation of temperature
- -insulation of bodies of water by floating ice
- -the solvent of life
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