positioning

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jenmin8
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99985
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positioning
Updated:
2011-09-09 19:34:33
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positioning
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radiographic positioning terminology
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  1. sagittal plane
    divides body into right and left segments; passes vertically
  2. coronal plane
    divides body into anterior and posterior segments; passes vertically from one side to the other
  3. horizontal plane
    passes crosswise through body on body part at right angles to longitudinal axis; divides into superior and inferior portions

    also called transverse or axial
  4. oblique plane
    passes through body part at any angle
  5. thoracic
  6. (CHEST) includes: pleural membranes, lungs, trachea, esophagus, pericardium, heart & great vessels, diaphragm
  7. abdominal
  8. peritoneum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, stomach, intestines, kidneys, ureters, major blood vessels, pelvic portion (rectum, urinary bladder & parts of reproductive system)
  9. sthenic
    body habitus; 50% or average
  10. hyposthenic
    body habitus; 35% or thin
  11. asthenic
    body habitus; 10%, very long, thin
  12. hyperstenic
    body habitus; 5% or obese
  13. anterior
    (also ventral) forward or front part of body or forward part of an organ
  14. posterior
    (dorsal) back part of body or organ (superior surface of the foot is referred to as dorsal surface)
  15. caudad
    parts away from the head of the body
  16. cephalad
    toward the head of the body
  17. superior
    nearer the head or situated above
  18. inferior
    nearer the feet or situated below
  19. central
    midarea or main part of an organ
  20. peripheral
    parts at or near the surface, edge, or outside of another body part
  21. medial
    toward the median plane of the body or toward the middle of another body part
  22. lateral
    away from the median plane of the body or away from the middle of another body part to the right or left
  23. superficial
    parts near the skin or surface
  24. deep
    parts far from the surface
  25. distal
    parts farthest from the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning; away from the center of the body
  26. proximal
    parts nearer the point of attachment, point of reference, origin, or beginning; toward the center of the body
  27. external
    parts outside an organ or on the outside of the body
  28. internal
    parts within or on the inside of an organ
  29. parietal
    the wall or lining of a body cavity
  30. visceral
    the covering of an organ
  31. ipsilateral
    a part or parts on the same side of the body
  32. contralateral
    part or parts on the opposite side of the body
  33. palmar
    palm of the hand
  34. plantar
    sole of the foot
  35. dorsum
    top or anterior surface of the foot, or to the back or posterior surface of the hand
  36. projection
    the path of the central ray as it exits the x-ray tube and goes through the patient to the IR. Most projections are defined by the entrance and exit points in the body and are based on the anatomic position. Regardless of which body position the patient is in (e.g., supine, prone, upright, etc.), if the central ray enters the anterior body surface and exits the posterior body surface, the projection is termed an AP projection.

    Projections can also be defined by the relationship formed between the central ray and the body as the central ray passes through the entire body or body part. Examples include the axial and tangential projections
  37. anterposterior
  38. perpendicular central ray enters the anterior body surface & exits the posterior body surface
  39. posteroanterior
  40. perpendicular central ray enters the posterior body surface & exits the anterior body surface
  41. lateral projection
    perpendicular central ray enters one side of the body or body part, passes transversely along the coronal plane, and exits the opposite side
  42. AP oblique
    central ray enters the anterior body or body part and exits the posterior surface. To achieve this, patient is rotated with the central ray perpendicular to the IR
  43. PA oblique
    central ray enters the posterior body or body part and exits the anterior surface
  44. axial
    in an axial projection, there is longitudinal angulation of the central ray with the long axis of the body or a specific body part (ie, central ray enters at an angle)
  45. tangential
    CR is directed toward the outer margin of a curved body surface to profile a body part just under the surface & project it free of imposition (ie, angling along one side)
  46. submentovertical
    central ray enters the sella turcica perpendicular to the IOML. The CR enters the midsagittal plane of the throat between the angles of the mandible and passes through a point ¾ inch (1.9 cm) anterior to the level of the EAMs
  47. acanthoparietal
    central ray perpendicular to enter the acanthion and centered to the IR
  48. parietoacanthial
    central ray perpendicular through the midorbits
  49. upright
    erect or marked by a vertical position
  50. seated
    upright position in which the patient is sitting on a chair or stool
  51. supine
    lying on back (or dorsal recumbent)
  52. prone
    lying face down (or ventral recumbent)
  53. recumbent
    general term referring to lying down in any position
  54. fowler's
    supine position with the head higher than the feet
  55. trendelenburg's
    supine position with the head tilted downward
  56. sim's
    recumbent position with the patient lying on the left anterior side (semi-prone) with the left leg extended & the right knee & thigh partially flexed
  57. lithomy
    supine position with the knees & hip flexed & thighs abducted & rotated externally, supported by ankle supports
  58. lateral right or lateral left
    Right (left) side is closest to IR (patient lies on right [left] side)
  59. oblique
    Achieved when the entire body or body part is rotated so that the coronal plane is not parallel with the radiographic table or IR. Named according to the side of the patient that is closest to the IR
  60. right posterior oblique position
    Position results in an LA Oblique Projection
  61. left posterior oblique position
    Position results in a RA Oblique Projection
  62. right anterior oblique position
    Position results in an LP Oblique Projection
  63. left anterior oblique
    Position results in an RP Oblique Projection
  64. decubitus
    indicates that the patient is lying down and that the central ray is horizontal and parallel with the floor

    Three primary decubitus positions are named according to the body surface on which the patient is lying: lateral decubitus (left or right), dorsal decubitus, and ventral decubitus
  65. rt lateral decubitus
    Patient lies on right side (IR is behind) (Right lateral decubitus position of the abdomen results in an AP projection) & a horizontal beam is used
  66. lt lateral decubitus
    Patient lies on left side (IR is behind) (Left lateral decubitus radiographic position of the abdomen results in an AP projection) & a horizontal beam is used
  67. ventral decubitus
    Patient lies on stomach, places right or left side of the body next to the IR, resulting in a right or left lateral projection
  68. dorsal decubitus
    Patient lies on back, places right or left side of the body next to the IR, resulting in a right or left lateral projection. (The horizontal central ray provides a lateral projection. This is correctly described as a lateral projection with the patient placed in the dorsal decubitus position. Either side may face the IR, depending on the examination or the patient's condition
  69. lordotic
    Patient leans backward while in the upright body position so that only the shoulders are in contact with the IR. An angulation forms between the CR and the long axis of the upper body, producing an AP axial projection
  70. abduct
    away from body
  71. adduct
    towards body
  72. extension
    straightening of a join
  73. flexion
    bending of a joint
  74. hyperextension
    excessive straightening
  75. hyperflexion
    forced over flexion
  76. evert/eversion
    outward turning of foot @ ankle (duck toed)
  77. invert/inversion
    inward turning of foot @ ankle (pigeon toed)
  78. pronate/pronation
    rotation of forearm; palm down
  79. supinate/supination
    rotation of forearm; palm up (AP position)
  80. rotate/rotation
    rotating body part toward its axis (lateral = away from midline; medial = toward midline)
  81. CIRCUMDUCTION
    circular movement of a limb
  82. tilt
    tipping or slanting of a body part slightly
  83. deviation
    turning away from the regular standard or course

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